Evidence and Burden of Proof in Foreign Sovereign Immunity Litigation: A Guide for International Lawyers and Government Counsel (10)


Published in 2014 with Createspace / Amazon by Peter Fritz Walter.


©2015 Peter Fritz Walter. Some rights reserved.
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Publication Table of Contents


Postface

The Unasked Question

Back in 1986, meeting Thai Ambassador Sompong Sucharitkul in Geneva, I suggested to him in his quality of Special Rapporteur of the International Law Commission (ILC), during an ILC meeting in Geneva, to insert provisions in the ILC Draft Convention pointing to the repartition of the burden of proof for both jurisdictional immunities and immunity from execution.

Dr. Sucharitkul replied shortly that he was not convinced that any such rule could at that time be considered to be a standard of international law.

When I told him that my thesis research clearly demonstrated that there was something like a baseline standard in international law pointing to a specific burden of proof situation for jurisdictional immunities, and another burden of proof situation for immunity from execution, he told me he found my assertion daring and premature.

Some time ago, I contacted him again upon drafting the new edition of my book, but he did not respond to my question repeated to him why in the 2004 ILC Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property, there was no clause dealing with the burden of proof? It seems to me that I am asking the most unasked question.

I perused the amendments to both the FSIA 1976, and the STIA 1982, as well as the Australian FSIA 1985 in its final 2003 version, and I also went through the international conventions once again, the Harvard Draft Convention, the ILA Draft Convention, the European Convention, and the final ILC 2004 Convention but the research was completely and utterly fruitless. Nothing was to be found on the burden of proof.

From a systematic point of view, and for finding a rule in international law regarding the allocation of the burden of proof in foreign sovereign immunity litigations, we need to peruse not only existing national statutes on foreign sovereign immunity, but also international conventions and draft conventions.

But what to conclude when these legal texts are silent on the question of the burden of proof? From these simple articles of the ILA Draft Convention, no conclusive statements can be derived as to the burden of proof:

Art. II (Immunity from jurisdiction)

In general, a foreign State shall be immune from the adjudicatory jurisdiction of a forum State for acts performed by it in the exercise of its sovereign authority i.e. iure imperii. It shall not be immune in the circumstances provided in Article III.

Article III (Exceptions)

Sovereign immunity shall not be granted when the case in question involved a commercial activity of the foreign state.

Art. VII (Immunity from execution)

A foreign State’s property in the forum State shall be immune from attachment arrest and execution except as provided in Article VIII.

The only thing we can safely assert is, it may become apparent that the burden of proof is not identical for jurisdictional immunities and immunity from execution into property belonging to a foreign state.

This has mainly, but not only, historical reasons. The main reason is that seizing property belonging to a foreign state is a quite strong measure, and can, if going unhindered, deeply disturb diplomatic relations between states.

This is so because most of the property nation states maintain within other states serves diplomatic and consular purposes, and to touch such property for satisfying private creditors could render diplomatic and consular relations unsafe and distressing; it is thus something to be avoided as much as possible in international relations.

This is also the reason why historically, the two immunity rules have developed differently, a fact which has already been considered in the Harvard Draft Convention of 1932 and which was decisive for the drafting of the International Law Association (ILA) Draft Convention.

— 26 AJIL 453 (1932 Suppl.), Comment on Art. 22, p. 690.

Whereas article II of the Convention (immunity from jurisdiction) was seen as a somewhat flexible rule, the comment on article VII (the rule of immunity from execution) was: … there should be an absolute rule of immunity unless a particular exception applies. Consequently, the two immunity rules have been drafted differently, so that the burden of proof becomes visible through the formulation.

It is obvious that Art. II is formulated in the way as to make clear that the foreign state enjoys immunity only in the case it has acted as a sovereign, i.e. engaged in a public, governmental activity.

This corresponds practically to the situation under sections 1604 to 1607 of the FSIA. However, under Art. VII of the Draft, the foreign state loses its immunity only in the case one of the exceptions applies and that the plaintiff shows and proofs this fact.

The burden of proof, under the ILA Draft, thus can be supposed to be exactly what was found in the present study, that is, the burden is upon the foreign state regarding immunity from jurisdiction, and on the plaintiff as to immunity from execution.

To show that this is grossly stated the current standard of procedural international law in matters of foreign sovereign immunity litigation was precisely the challenge of my doctoral thesis.

And my answer was in the affirmative, despite several discussions with ILC expert Sompong Sucharitkul who thought I would never be able to prove such a standard, while both Sir Ian Sinclair and Lady Hazel Fox were affirmative that I might be on the right way.

None of the 1996 and 2004 amendments to the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act 1976 nor amendments to any of the other immunity statutes has dealt with the burden of proof. The content of these amendments regarded matters by far outside of the research scope of the present study.

— The Australian Foreign States Immunities Act 1985 is one of the least documented national statutes on foreign sovereign immunity. It is very much alike the acts that were cloned after the British model, the STIA 1978. It doesn’t contain any original or noteworthy provisions other than what has been largely discussed in this study. There is absolutely nothing to be found on the matter of the burden of proof, as if it had escaped Australian legal scholars to even bother about the problem which is of high practical importance. Hence, it was not worth the time and effort to discuss that statute in the present book.

Yet despite this lack of explicitness regarding the allocation of the burden of proof in international conventions, and despite the fact that amendments to the existing immunity statutes we examined have not dealt with clarifying the burden of proof, there is sufficient evidence brought forward in this study to assert that a baseline standard of the burden of proof has been accepted in international law theory and practice and can be expected to be applied in future jurisprudence and law making on the topic of sovereign immunity litigation.

This has more than one reason. The main reason is that from a practical point of view, the burden or proof issue is of the utmost importance for both government counsel, and international trial lawyers for successfully litigating their way out of court, and for doing the right job when drafting contracts for both governments and private merchants, in their commercial or not so commercial dealings.

The burden of proof is immensely important also from a point of view of efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

Costs in such kinds of litigation, including arbitrage litigation, are known to be high and at times extremely high. In such a situation, any kind of measure to reduce cost on both the government and the merchant sides will be welcomed. Producing evidence to a high court or federal court, or even supreme court takes time and involves cost; it also involves expertise, and expensive and highly qualified lawyers.

When the burden of proof is known in advance in any particular situation during the trial, in a jurisdictional immunities suit, or in a suit involving property of foreign states, producing unnecessary evidence can be effectively avoided; thereby costs can be reduced.

This is perhaps not an argument that is of much interest for an international law professor or lecturer, but it is certainly one that is of the utmost interest for practicing international lawyers and government counsel.

Today, even governments need to be cost-effective and have a higher responsibility toward their national parliaments to reduce unnecessary cost, and from that point of view, the present study is certainly of high import.


Abbreviations

Periodicals and Digests

A.B.A.J.
American Bar Association Journal (Chicago, USA)

A 1964 SC 72
The All India Reporter, 1964, Supreme Court

A.C.
Law Reports Appeal Cases, 1891 —

A.I.R.
The All India Reporter, Bombay, India

A.I.R. Manual
The A. I. R. Manual, Unrepealed Central Acts, Bombay, India

AJIL
American Journal of International Law

A.L.I.
American Law Institute

3 All E R 441 (1957)
All England Law Reports, Vol. 3, 1957, pp. 441 ff.

[1874–80] All E.R. Rep. 104
All England Law Reports, Volume 1874–1880, pp. 104 ff.

[1948] Ann.Dig. 137 (No.42)
Annual Digest, 1948, pp. 137 ff. (Case No. 42)

BDGVR
Berichte der deutschen Gesellschaft für Völkerrecht

BVerfGE
Entscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts

C.P.C.
Civil Procedure Code

CPD
Law Reports Common Pleas Division, 1875–1880

D. L. R.
Dominion Law Reports 1912 — date (Canada)

441 F.Supp. 827
Federal Supplement, Vol. 441, pp. 827 ff.

706 F.2d 411
Federal Reporter, Second Series, Vol. 706, pp. 411 ff.

ICLQ
International and Comparative Law Quarterly

ILM
International Legal Materials

ILR
International Law Reports (Lauterpacht)

J.M.C.L.
Journal of Malaysian Comparative Law

K.B.
Law Reports: King’s Bench Division, 1901–1952

Laws of Kenya
Laws of Kenya, Revised Edition, Government Printer, Nairobi

L.Ed.
United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyer’s Edition

Lloyd’s Rep.
Lloyd’s List Law Reports, 1919 — date

Model Code
Model Code of Evidence, American Law Institute, Chestnut, 1942

P.
Law Reports Probate, Divorce and Admiralty, 1981–1971

P.D.
Law Reports Probate Division, 1875–1890

PLD SC
The All Pakistan Legal Decisions, Church Road, Lahore, Pakistan

Public Law
Public Law of the United States

Q.B.
Law Reports: Queen’s Bench Division, 1891–1901, 1952 — date

Que.P.R.
Quebec Practice Reports (Canada)

Que.R.P.
Quebec Rapports Pratiques (Canada)

Que.SC
Quebec Official Reports, Superior Court (Quebec), Canada

Rapport C.R.D.C.
Rapport de la Commission de Réforme du Droit de Canada

RCADI
International Law Academy, Collected Cases, Boston, The Hague

R.C.D.I.P.
Revue Critique de Droit International Privé

R.C.S.
Rapports de la Cour Suprême du Canada

1980 (2) SA 709 (E)
South African Law Reports, Vol.2, 1980, pp. 709 ff. (Eastern Cape D.)

1980 (2) SA 111 (T)
South African Law Reports, Vol.2, 1980, pp. 111 ff. (Transvaal Division)

S.C.R.
Supreme Court Reports (Canada)

S.Ct.
Supreme Court Reporter (USA)

STAT
United States Statutes at Large

The Pakistan Code
The Pakistan Code, Government of Pakistan, 1966, Vol. I-XVII

TIAS
Treaties and Other International Act Series, Department of State

13 U.L.A. Civil Proc.
Uniform Laws Annotated, Vol. 13, Civil Procedural and Remedial Law

U.L.C.C. Report
Uniform Law Commission of Canada, Report of the Task Force on Uniform Rules of Evidence, Toronto (Carswell), 1982

UN-Mat.
Materials on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property, Doc. ST/LEG/SER.B./20, New York (United Nations), 1982

U.S.
United States Reports (U.S. Supreme Court)

U.S.C.
United States Code

U.S.C.A.
United States Code Annotated

28 U.S.C.A. §1611
United States Code Annotated, Title 28, Section 1611

UST
United States Treaties and other International Agreements, 1950- date

West’s Ann.Evid.Code, §110
West’s Annotated California Codes, Evidence Code, Vol. 29 B, St. Paul (West), 1977, Section 110

W.L.R.
Weekly Law Reports

ZaöRV
Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht)

ZZP
Zeitschrift für Zivilprozess


Precedents

Listed Alphabetically

Abdul Waheed v. Bhawani
A 1967 SC 781

Abilene Sheet Metal Inc. v. N.L.R.B.
619 F.2d 332 (3d Cir.1980)

Agrawala v. Union of India
A.I.R.1980, Sikkim 22, 21 INDIAN J.INT’L L. 594–600 (1981)

Alberti v. Empresa Nicaraguense de la Carne
705 F.2d 250 (7th Cir. 1983), 22 ILM 835 (1983)

Alcom Ltd. v. Republic of Colombia
[1984] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 24 (H.L.), 23 ILM 719 (1984)

Alfred Dunhill of London v. Republic of Cuba
425 U.S. 682 (1986)

Ali Akbar v. U.A.R.
A 1966 SC 230

Allan Construction Ltd. v. Government of Venezuela
[1968] Que.P.R. 145, Que.S.C. 523

Amanat Khan v. Fredson Travel Inc.
[1982] 36 O.R.17 (Ont.H.C.), 64 ILR 733 (1983)

Arango v. Guzman Travel Advisors Corp.
621 F.2d 1371 (5th Cir. 1980)

Banco Nacional de Cuba v. Chase Manhattan Bank
505 F.Supp. 412 (S.D.N.Y. 1981)

Banque Compafina v. Banco de Guatemala et. al.
583 F.Supp. 320 (S.D.N.Y. 1984), 23 ILM 782 (1984)

Beacon Enterprises v. Menzies
715 F.2d 757 (2d Cir. 1983)

Behring International Inc. v. Imperial Iranian Air Force (Behring I)
475 F.Supp. 383 (D.N.J. 1979), UN-Mat. 479, 63 ILR 261 (1982)

Behring International Inc. v. Imperial Iranian Air Force (Behring II)
475 F.Supp. 396 (D.N.J. 1979), UN-Mat. 492

Berizzi Brothers Co. v. Steamship Pesaro
271 U.S. 562, 46 S.Ct. 611 (1926)

Beschluss des Bundesverfassungsgerichts zu Fragen der Staatenimmunität, vom 13. Dezember 1977
BVerfGE 46, 342, ZaöRV 1978, 245

RECHT DER INTERNATIONALEN WIRTSCHAFT (RIW/AWD), 1978, 122
Comment by Prof. Dr. Seidl-Hohenveldern

UN-Mat. 297, 65 IRL 146 (1984)

Booth Newspapers Inc. v. Regents of University of Michigan
280 N.W.2d 883, 90 Mich.App. 99 (Mich.App. 1979)

Boyce v. United States
93 F.Supp. 866 (D.C.Iowa 1950)

Braka v. Bancomer S.N.C.
762 F.2d 222 (2d Cir. 1985), 24 ILM 1047 (1985)

Broadbent v. Organization of American States (OAS)
19 ILM 208 (1980) (D.C.Cir. 1980)

Brown v. Rolls Royce Ltd.
[1960] 1 W.L.R. 210 (H.L.)

Callajo v. Bancomer S.A.
764 F.2d 1101 (5th Cir. 1985), 24 ILM 1050 (1985)

Carey et. al. v. National Oil Corporation and Libyan Arab Republic
453 F.Supp. 1097 (S.D.N.Y. 1978), 17 ILM 1180 (1978), UN-Mat. 477, 63 ILR 164
Confirmed 592 F.2d 673 (2d Cir. 1979)

Carlson v. Nelson
285 N.W.2d 505, 204 Neb. 765 (Neb. 1979)

Castro v. Saudi Arabia
510 F.Supp. 309 (W.D.Tex. 1980), 63 ILR 419

Chapman v. Oakleigh Animal Products Ltd.
[1970] 8 KIR 1063

Chicago Bridge & Iron Comp. v. The Islamic Republic of Iran
19 ILM 1436 (N.D.Ill. 1980)

Civil Aeronautics v. Alitalia-Linee Aeree Italiane
328 F.Supp. 759 (E.D.N.Y. 1971)

Coast Pump Associates v. Stephen Tyler Corporation
133 Cal.Rptr. 88, 62 C.A.3d (Cal.App. 1976)

Commercial Ins. of Newark v. Pacific-Peru Construction Co.
558 F.2d 948 (9th Cir. 1977)

Compania Española v. Navemar
303 U.S. 68, 58 S.Ct. 432, 82 L.Ed. 667.

Congo v. Venne
[1971] R.C.S. 997, [1971] 22 D.L.R.2d 669, 64 ILR 24 (1983)

Corporación Venezolana de Fomento v. Vintero Sales
629 F.2d 786 (2d Cir. 1980)

Delahite v. United States
346 U.S. 15 (1953)

Dames & More v. Regan
453 U.S. 654, 101 S.Ct. 2972, 69 L.Ed.2d 218 (1981)
Online Publication

De Howorth v. The SS ‘India’
1921 CPD 451

Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Jean Venne
[1971] R.C.S. 997, [1971] 22 D.L.R.2d 669, 64 ILR 24 (1983)

De Sanchez v. Banco Central de Nicaragua
515 F.Supp. 900 (E.D.La. 1981)

Desikacharyulu v. S.
A 1964 SC 807

Dessaules v. Republic of Poland
[1944] 4 D.L.R. 1, [1944] S.C.R. 275

Dickinson v. Minister of Pensions
[1953] 1 Q.B. 228, [1952] 2 All E R 1031

Discroll v. United States
525 F.2d 136 (9th Cir. 1975)

Duff Development Co. v. The Government of Kelantan
[1924] A.C. 797

Edlow International Co. v. Nuklearna Elektrikarna Krsko
414 F.Supp. 827 (D.D.C. 1977), 63 ILR 100 (1982)

Ex Parte Muir
254 U.S. 522, 41 S.Ct. 185, 65 L.Ed. 383

Ex Parte Peru
318 U.S. 578

First National City Bank v. Banco Para el Comercio Exterior de Cuba (BANCEC)
103 S.Ct. 2591 (1983)

Flota Maritima Browning de Cuba v. Motor Vessel Ciudad
335 F.2d 619 (4th Cir. 1964)

Flota Maritima Browning de Cuba v. ‘Canadian Conqueror’ and Republic of China
[1962] 34 D.L.R.2d 628, [1962] S.C.R. 598

Frovola v. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
761 F.2d 370 (7th Cir. 1985)

Giampaoli v. Califano
628 F.2d 1190 (9th Cir. 1980)

Gilson v. Republic of Ireland
682 F.2d 1022 (D.C. Cir. 1982)

Gittler v. German Information Center
408 N.Y.S.2d 600 (Sup.Ct.N.Y. 1978), Digest United States Practice, 1978, 879–883

Gray v. Permanent Mission of the Congo to the United Nations
443 F.Supp. 816 (S.D.N.Y. 1978), 63 ILR 121 (1982)

Gurdwara & Co. v. Rattan
A 1955 SC 576

Harris Corporation v. National Iranian Radio and Television
691 F.2d 1344 (11th Cir. 1982), 22 ILM 434 (1983)

Harris v. VAO Intourist, Moscow
481 F.Supp. 1056 (E.D.N.Y. 1979), 63 ILR 318 (1982)

Hispano Americana Mercantil S.A. v. Central Bank of Nigeria
[1979] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 277 (C.A.)

Hochgurtel v. San Felipo
253 N.W. 2d 526, 78 Wis.2d 70 (Wis.1977)

Home v. Guy
[1877] 5 Ch.D. 901

Hunt v. Mobil Oil Corporation
550 F.2d 68 (2d Cir. 1977), cert. den., 434 U.S. 984, 98 S.Ct. 608, 57 L.Ed.2d 477

Hurst v. Evans
[1917] 1 K.B. 351

I Congreso del Partido
[1981] 2 All E R 1064 (H.L.), [1981] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 367, [1983] 1 A.C. 244, 64 ILR 307 (1983)

International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM) v. Opec
477 F.Supp. 553 (C.D. Cal. 1979)

International Shoe Co. v. Washington
326 U.S. 310 (1945)

Inter-Science Research and Development Services (PTY) Ltd. v. Republica Popular de Moçambique
1980 2 SA 111 (T), 64 ILR 689 (1983)

Intro Properties (U.K.) Ltd. v. Sauvel
[1983] 1 Q.B. 1019 (1983), 2 W.L.R. 1

Ipitrade International S.A. v. Federal Republic of Nigeria
465 F.Supp. 824 (D.D.C. 1978), 17 ILM 1395 (1978), 63 ILR 196 (1982)

Jafari v. Islamic Republic of Iran
539 F.Supp. 209 (N.D.Ill. 1982), 21 ILM 767 (1982)

Jackson v. People’s Republic of China
550 F.Supp. 869 (N.D.Ala. 1982)

Jet Line Services Inc. v. M/V Marsa El Hariga
462 F.Supp. 1165 (D.Md. 1978)

Joseph Constantine Steamship Line Ltd. v. Imperial Smelting
[1942] A.C. 154, [1941] 2 All E R 165 (H.L.)

Juan Ismael & Co. v. Indonesian Government
[1954] 3 All E R 236, [1955] A.C. 72, [1954] 3 W.L.R. 531, [1954] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 175

Kaffraria Property v. The Government of Zambia
1980 (2) SA 709 (E), 64 ILR 708 (1983)

Kalamazoo Spice Extraction Co. v. The Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia
24 ILM 1278 (W.D.Mich. 1985)

Kashani v. United Arab Republics
A.I.R. 1966 SC 230, 60 AJIL 861 (1966), 64 ILR 489 (1983)

Krajina v. Tass Agency
[1949] 2 All E R 274 (C.A.)

Le Gouvernement de la République Démocratique du Congo v. Jean Venne
[1971] R.C.S. 997, [1971] 22 D.L.R.2d 669, 64 ILR 24 (1983)

Letelier v. Republic of Chile (Letelier I)
488 F.Supp. 665 (D.D.C. 1980), 19 ILM 409 (1980)

Letelier v. Republic of Chile (Letelier II)
502 F.Supp. 259 (D.D.C. 1980), 19 ILM 1418 (1980)

Letelier v. Republic of Chile (Letelier III)
567 F.Supp. 1490 (S.D.N.Y. 1983)

Libra Bank Ltd. v. Banco Nacional de Costa Rica
676 F2d 47 (2d Cir. 1982), 21 ILM 618 (1982)

Libyan American Oil Company (LIAMCO) v. Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
482 F.Supp. 1175 (D.D.C. 1980)

Lindgren v. United States
665 F2d 978 (9th Cir. 1982)

Marine Steel Ltd. v. The Government of the Marshall Islands
NEW ZEALAND L.J. 506 (1981), High Court of Auckland, 29 July 1981 (A 533/81)

Maritime International Nominees Establishment (MINE) v. The Republic of Guinea
21 ILM 1355 (D.C.Cir. 1982)

Matter of Rio Grande Transport Inc.
516 F.Supp. 1155 (S.D.N.Y. 1981), 63 ILR 604 (1982)

Matter of Sedco Inc.
543 F.Supp. 561, 21 ILM 318 (S.D.Tex. 1982)

McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. The Islamic Republic of Iran
758 F.2d 341 (8th Cir. 1985)

McGee v. International Life Insurance Co.
355 U.S. 220 (1957)

McKeel v. The Islamic Republic of Iran
722 F.2d 582 (9th Cir. 1983)

Mighell v. Sultan of Johore
[1894] 1 Q.B. 149

Miller v. Minister of Pensions
[1947] 2 All E R 372

Mol Inc. v. People’s Republic of Bangladesh
572 F.Supp. 79 (D.Or. 1983)

National American Corporation v. Federal Republic of Nigeria
448 F.Supp. 622 (S.D.N.Y. 1978), 17 ILM 1407 (1978), 63 ILR 63 (1982)
Confirmed 597 F.2d 314 (2d Cir. 1979), 63 ILR 137

O’Connell Machinery Company Inc. v. M/V ‘Americana’
566 F.Supp. 1381 (S.D.N.Y. 1983)

Ohntrup v. Firearms Center Inc.
516 F.Supp. 1281 (Ed.D.Pa. 1981)

Olsen by Sheldon v. Government of Mexico
729 F.2d 641 (9th Cir. 1984)

Outbound Maritime Corporation v. P.T. Indonesian Consortium of Construction Industries(ICCI) Outbound I
575 F.Supp. 1222 (S.D.N.Y. 1983)

Outbound II
582 F.Supp. 1136 (D.Md. 1984)

Pan American Tankers Corp. v. Republic of Vietnam
291 F.Supp. 49 (S.D.N.Y. 1968)

Penthouse Studios Inc. v. Government of Venezuela
[1969] 8 D.L.R.3d 686 (C.A.), 64 ILR 20 (1983)

Perez v. The Bahamas
482 F.Supp. 1208 (D.D.C. 1980), 63 ILR, 350 (1982)

Planmount Ltd. v. The Republic of Zaire
[1980] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 393

Prejean v. Sonatrach Inc.
652 F.2d 1260 (5th Cir. 1981)

Puente v. Spanish National State
116 F.2d 43 (2d Cir. 1940), cert. den., 314 U.S. 627, 62 S.Ct. 57, 86 L.Ed. 501 (1941)

Qureshi v. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
PLD 1981, 1, Supreme Court, 377, 20 ILM 1060 (1981), 64 ILR 585 (1983)

Rahimtoola v. Nizam of Hyderabad
[1957] 3 All E.R. 441, [1957] 3 W.L.R. 884, [1958] A.C. 379

Republic of Mexico v. Hoffmann
324 U.S. 30 (1945)

République Démocratique du Congo v. Jean Venne
[1971] R.C.S. 997, [1971] 22 D.L.R.2d 669, 64 ILR 24 (1983)

Re Royal Bank of Canada and Corriveau et al.
[1980] 103 D.L.R.3d 520 (Ont.H.C.), 64 ILR 69 (1983)

Sherman Inc. v. United States
199 F.2d 504 (8th Cir. 1952)

Skeen v. Federative Republic of Brazil
566 F.Supp. 1414 (D.D.C. 1983)

Smith v. Canadian Javelin Ltd.
[1976] 68 D.L.R.3d 428 (Ont.H.C.), 64 ILR 47 (1983)

Sperry International Trade v. Government of Israel
532 F.Supp. 901 (S.D.N.Y. 1982), 21 ILM 1073 (1982)
Confirmed 21 ILM 1066 (2d Cir. 1982)

S & S Machinery Co. v. Masinexportimport (MASIN)
706 F.2d 411 (2d Cir. 1983)

Sugarman v. Aeromexico
626 F.2d 270 (3d Cir. 1980)

Texas Trading Corp. v. Federal Republic of Nigeria and Central Bank of Nigeria
647 F.2d 300 (2d Cir. 1981)

Thai-Europe Tapioca Service Ltd. v. Government of Pakistan
[1975] 3 All E R 961, [1975] 1 W.L.R. 1485 (C.A.), 64 ILR 81 (1983)

The Bremen v. Zapata-Off-Shore Co.
407 U.S. 1, 92 S.Ct. 1907, 32 L.Ed.2d 513 (1972)

The Christina
[1938] A.C. 484

The Glendarroch
[1894] P. 226, 63 L.J. Adm. 89, 6 R. 686, 70 L.T. 344

The Parlement Belge
[1880] 5 P.D. 197, [1874–80] All E R 104

The Pesaro
255 U.S. 216 (1921), 41 S.Ct. 308, 65 L.Ed. 592

The Philippine Admiral
[1977] A.C. 373

The Porto Alexandre
[1920] P. 30, [1918–19] All E R 615, [1920] A.C. 30

The Schooner Exchange v. McFaddon et al.
11 U.S. [7 Cranch] 116 (1812)

The Uganda Holding Co. (Holdings) Ltd. v. The Government of Uganda
[1979] 1 Lloyd’s Rep. 481

Thompson v. United States
592 F.2d 1104 (9th Cir. 1979)

Tigchon v. Island of Jamaica
591 F.Supp. 765 (W.D.Mich. 1984)

Transamerican S.S. Corp. v. Somali Democratic Republic
767 F.2d 998 (D.D.C. 1985)

Trendtex Trading Co. v. Central Bank of Nigeria
[1977] 1 Lloyd’s Rep. 581

U Kyaw Din v. His Britannic Majesty’s Government of the United Kingdom and the Union of Burma
23 ILR 214 (1956), [1948] Ann.Dig. 137 (No. 42)

United Arab Republic v. Kashani
64 ILR 394 (1983)

United Euram v. U.S.S.R.
461 F.Supp. 609 (S.D.N.Y. 1978), 63 ILR 228 (1982)

United States v. Lee
106 U.S. 196 (1882)

United States v. Sampol
636 F.2d 621 (D.C. Cir., 1980)

Upton v. Empire of Iran
459 F.Supp. 264 (D.D.C. 1978), 63 ILR 211 (1982)

Velidor v. C/P/G Benghazi
653 F.2d 812 (3d Cir. 1981), 21 ILM 621 (1982), 63 ILR 622 (1982)

Verlinden B.V. v. Central Bank of Nigeria (Supreme Court)
461 U.S. 480, 103 S.Ct. 1962, 76 L.Ed.2d 81, 51 U.S.L.W. 4567, 22 ILM 647 (1983)

Verlinden B.V. v. Central Bank of Nigeria (District Court)
647 F.2d 320 (2d Cir. 1981)

Venne v. République Démocratique du Congo
[1968] Que.R.P. (2) 6 (C.S.), [1969] 5 D.L.R.3d, 128, 64 ILR 1 (1983)

Victory Transport Inc. v. Comisaria General de Abasticimientos y Transportes
336 F.2d 354 (2d Cir. 1964)

Williams v. United States
350 U.S. 857, 76 S.Ct. 100, 100 L.Ed. 761 (1955)

Wolf v. Banco Nacional de Mexico S.A.
739 F.2d 1458 (9th Cir. 1984)

Wood v. Schwartz
88 F.Supp. 385 (W.D.Pa. 1950)

Wyle v. Bank Melli of Teheran, Iran
577 F.Supp. 1148

Yessenin-Volpin v. Novosti Press Agency (Tass)
443 F.Supp. 849 (S.D.N.Y. 1978)

Youssef M. Nada Establishment v. Central Bank of Nigeria
16 ILM 501 (1977), Landgericht Frankfurt (Germany)

Zodiak v. Polish People’s Republic
[1977] 81 D.L.R.3d 656 (C.A.Que.), 64 ILR 51 (1983)


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The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976
17 COLUM.J.TRANSNAT’L L. 33–66 (1978)

Walder-Bohner, Hans Ulrich
Zivilprozessrecht
3. Auflage
Zürich: Schulthess, 1983

Walker & Walker
The English Legal System
6th Edition, by R.J. Walker
London: Butterworths, 1985

Walter, Peter-Fritz
Gibt es eine Beweislastverteilung bei der Immunität von Staaten?
30 RECHT DER INTERNATIONALEN WIRTSCHAFT (RIW/AWD) 9–14 (1984)

Weber
The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976: Its Origin, Meaning and Effect
3 YALE STUD.WORLD PUB.ORD. 1 (1976)

Weiss, André
Compétence ou incompétence des tribunaux à l’égard des états étrangers
1 RCADI (1923) 525

West’s Encyclopedia of American Law
Second Edition
New York: Gale Group, 2008

White, Robin C. A.
The State Immunity Act 1978
42 MODERN L.REV. 72–79 (1979)

Whiteman
Digest of International Law
Vol. 6
Washington, D.C.: Department of State Publication 8350, 1968

Wigmore, John Henry
A Treatise on the Anglo-American System of Evidence in Trials at Common Law
10 Volumes, Vol. 9 ‘Evidence in Trials at Common Law.’
Rev. by James H. Chadburn
Boston, Toronto: Little, Brown & Company, 1981

Woodroffe & Amer Ali
Law of Evidence
14th Edition
Ed. and rev. by B. R. P. Singhal and Narayan Das
Allahabad: Law Book Company Ltd., 1979

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Ed. by John B. Saunders
2nd Edition
London: Butterworths, 1969

Wright, Miller & Cooper
Federal Practice and Procedure, 1975

Yaffe, Robert H.
Direct Financial Effects under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act
14 LAW.AMERICAS 361–365 (1982)

Yannopoulos, A. N.
Foreign sovereign immunity and the arrest of state-owned ships: the need for an admiralty foreign sovereign immunities act
57 TUL.L.REV. 1274–1342 (1983)


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