Evidence and Burden of Proof in Foreign Sovereign Immunity Litigation: A Guide for International Lawyers and Government Counsel (10)

Published in 2014 with Createspace / Amazon by Peter Fritz Walter.

©2015 Peter Fritz Walter. Some rights reserved.
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Publication Table of Contents


The Unasked Question

Back in 1986, meeting Thai Ambassador Sompong Sucharitkul in Geneva, I suggested to him in his quality of Special Rapporteur of the International Law Commission (ILC), during an ILC meeting in Geneva, to insert provisions in the ILC Draft Convention pointing to the repartition of the burden of proof for both jurisdictional immunities and immunity from execution.

Dr. Sucharitkul replied shortly that he was not convinced that any such rule could at that time be considered to be a standard of international law.

When I told him that my thesis research clearly demonstrated that there was something like a baseline standard in international law pointing to a specific burden of proof situation for jurisdictional immunities, and another burden of proof situation for immunity from execution, he told me he found my assertion daring and premature.

Some time ago, I contacted him again upon drafting the new edition of my book, but he did not respond to my question repeated to him why in the 2004 ILC Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property, there was no clause dealing with the burden of proof? It seems to me that I am asking the most unasked question.

I perused the amendments to both the FSIA 1976, and the STIA 1982, as well as the Australian FSIA 1985 in its final 2003 version, and I also went through the international conventions once again, the Harvard Draft Convention, the ILA Draft Convention, the European Convention, and the final ILC 2004 Convention but the research was completely and utterly fruitless. Nothing was to be found on the burden of proof.

From a systematic point of view, and for finding a rule in international law regarding the allocation of the burden of proof in foreign sovereign immunity litigations, we need to peruse not only existing national statutes on foreign sovereign immunity, but also international conventions and draft conventions.

But what to conclude when these legal texts are silent on the question of the burden of proof? From these simple articles of the ILA Draft Convention, no conclusive statements can be derived as to the burden of proof:

Art. II (Immunity from jurisdiction)

In general, a foreign State shall be immune from the adjudicatory jurisdiction of a forum State for acts performed by it in the exercise of its sovereign authority i.e. iure imperii. It shall not be immune in the circumstances provided in Article III.

Article III (Exceptions)

Sovereign immunity shall not be granted when the case in question involved a commercial activity of the foreign state.

Art. VII (Immunity from execution)

A foreign State’s property in the forum State shall be immune from attachment arrest and execution except as provided in Article VIII.

The only thing we can safely assert is, it may become apparent that the burden of proof is not identical for jurisdictional immunities and immunity from execution into property belonging to a foreign state.

This has mainly, but not only, historical reasons. The main reason is that seizing property belonging to a foreign state is a quite strong measure, and can, if going unhindered, deeply disturb diplomatic relations between states.

This is so because most of the property nation states maintain within other states serves diplomatic and consular purposes, and to touch such property for satisfying private creditors could render diplomatic and consular relations unsafe and distressing; it is thus something to be avoided as much as possible in international relations.

This is also the reason why historically, the two immunity rules have developed differently, a fact which has already been considered in the Harvard Draft Convention of 1932 and which was decisive for the drafting of the International Law Association (ILA) Draft Convention.

— 26 AJIL 453 (1932 Suppl.), Comment on Art. 22, p. 690.

Whereas article II of the Convention (immunity from jurisdiction) was seen as a somewhat flexible rule, the comment on article VII (the rule of immunity from execution) was: … there should be an absolute rule of immunity unless a particular exception applies. Consequently, the two immunity rules have been drafted differently, so that the burden of proof becomes visible through the formulation.

It is obvious that Art. II is formulated in the way as to make clear that the foreign state enjoys immunity only in the case it has acted as a sovereign, i.e. engaged in a public, governmental activity.

This corresponds practically to the situation under sections 1604 to 1607 of the FSIA. However, under Art. VII of the Draft, the foreign state loses its immunity only in the case one of the exceptions applies and that the plaintiff shows and proofs this fact.

The burden of proof, under the ILA Draft, thus can be supposed to be exactly what was found in the present study, that is, the burden is upon the foreign state regarding immunity from jurisdiction, and on the plaintiff as to immunity from execution.

To show that this is grossly stated the current standard of procedural international law in matters of foreign sovereign immunity litigation was precisely the challenge of my doctoral thesis.

And my answer was in the affirmative, despite several discussions with ILC expert Sompong Sucharitkul who thought I would never be able to prove such a standard, while both Sir Ian Sinclair and Lady Hazel Fox were affirmative that I might be on the right way.

None of the 1996 and 2004 amendments to the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act 1976 nor amendments to any of the other immunity statutes has dealt with the burden of proof. The content of these amendments regarded matters by far outside of the research scope of the present study.

— The Australian Foreign States Immunities Act 1985 is one of the least documented national statutes on foreign sovereign immunity. It is very much alike the acts that were cloned after the British model, the STIA 1978. It doesn’t contain any original or noteworthy provisions other than what has been largely discussed in this study. There is absolutely nothing to be found on the matter of the burden of proof, as if it had escaped Australian legal scholars to even bother about the problem which is of high practical importance. Hence, it was not worth the time and effort to discuss that statute in the present book.

Yet despite this lack of explicitness regarding the allocation of the burden of proof in international conventions, and despite the fact that amendments to the existing immunity statutes we examined have not dealt with clarifying the burden of proof, there is sufficient evidence brought forward in this study to assert that a baseline standard of the burden of proof has been accepted in international law theory and practice and can be expected to be applied in future jurisprudence and law making on the topic of sovereign immunity litigation.

This has more than one reason. The main reason is that from a practical point of view, the burden or proof issue is of the utmost importance for both government counsel, and international trial lawyers for successfully litigating their way out of court, and for doing the right job when drafting contracts for both governments and private merchants, in their commercial or not so commercial dealings.

The burden of proof is immensely important also from a point of view of efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

Costs in such kinds of litigation, including arbitrage litigation, are known to be high and at times extremely high. In such a situation, any kind of measure to reduce cost on both the government and the merchant sides will be welcomed. Producing evidence to a high court or federal court, or even supreme court takes time and involves cost; it also involves expertise, and expensive and highly qualified lawyers.

When the burden of proof is known in advance in any particular situation during the trial, in a jurisdictional immunities suit, or in a suit involving property of foreign states, producing unnecessary evidence can be effectively avoided; thereby costs can be reduced.

This is perhaps not an argument that is of much interest for an international law professor or lecturer, but it is certainly one that is of the utmost interest for practicing international lawyers and government counsel.

Today, even governments need to be cost-effective and have a higher responsibility toward their national parliaments to reduce unnecessary cost, and from that point of view, the present study is certainly of high import.


Periodicals and Digests

American Bar Association Journal (Chicago, USA)

A 1964 SC 72
The All India Reporter, 1964, Supreme Court

Law Reports Appeal Cases, 1891 —

The All India Reporter, Bombay, India

A.I.R. Manual
The A. I. R. Manual, Unrepealed Central Acts, Bombay, India

American Journal of International Law

American Law Institute

3 All E R 441 (1957)
All England Law Reports, Vol. 3, 1957, pp. 441 ff.

[1874–80] All E.R. Rep. 104
All England Law Reports, Volume 1874–1880, pp. 104 ff.

[1948] Ann.Dig. 137 (No.42)
Annual Digest, 1948, pp. 137 ff. (Case No. 42)

Berichte der deutschen Gesellschaft für Völkerrecht

Entscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts

Civil Procedure Code

Law Reports Common Pleas Division, 1875–1880

D. L. R.
Dominion Law Reports 1912 — date (Canada)

441 F.Supp. 827
Federal Supplement, Vol. 441, pp. 827 ff.

706 F.2d 411
Federal Reporter, Second Series, Vol. 706, pp. 411 ff.

International and Comparative Law Quarterly

International Legal Materials

International Law Reports (Lauterpacht)

Journal of Malaysian Comparative Law

Law Reports: King’s Bench Division, 1901–1952

Laws of Kenya
Laws of Kenya, Revised Edition, Government Printer, Nairobi

United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyer’s Edition

Lloyd’s Rep.
Lloyd’s List Law Reports, 1919 — date

Model Code
Model Code of Evidence, American Law Institute, Chestnut, 1942

Law Reports Probate, Divorce and Admiralty, 1981–1971

Law Reports Probate Division, 1875–1890

The All Pakistan Legal Decisions, Church Road, Lahore, Pakistan

Public Law
Public Law of the United States

Law Reports: Queen’s Bench Division, 1891–1901, 1952 — date

Quebec Practice Reports (Canada)

Quebec Rapports Pratiques (Canada)

Quebec Official Reports, Superior Court (Quebec), Canada

Rapport C.R.D.C.
Rapport de la Commission de Réforme du Droit de Canada

International Law Academy, Collected Cases, Boston, The Hague

Revue Critique de Droit International Privé

Rapports de la Cour Suprême du Canada

1980 (2) SA 709 (E)
South African Law Reports, Vol.2, 1980, pp. 709 ff. (Eastern Cape D.)

1980 (2) SA 111 (T)
South African Law Reports, Vol.2, 1980, pp. 111 ff. (Transvaal Division)

Supreme Court Reports (Canada)

Supreme Court Reporter (USA)

United States Statutes at Large

The Pakistan Code
The Pakistan Code, Government of Pakistan, 1966, Vol. I-XVII

Treaties and Other International Act Series, Department of State

13 U.L.A. Civil Proc.
Uniform Laws Annotated, Vol. 13, Civil Procedural and Remedial Law

U.L.C.C. Report
Uniform Law Commission of Canada, Report of the Task Force on Uniform Rules of Evidence, Toronto (Carswell), 1982

Materials on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property, Doc. ST/LEG/SER.B./20, New York (United Nations), 1982

United States Reports (U.S. Supreme Court)

United States Code

United States Code Annotated

28 U.S.C.A. §1611
United States Code Annotated, Title 28, Section 1611

United States Treaties and other International Agreements, 1950- date

West’s Ann.Evid.Code, §110
West’s Annotated California Codes, Evidence Code, Vol. 29 B, St. Paul (West), 1977, Section 110

Weekly Law Reports

Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht)

Zeitschrift für Zivilprozess


Listed Alphabetically

Abdul Waheed v. Bhawani
A 1967 SC 781

Abilene Sheet Metal Inc. v. N.L.R.B.
619 F.2d 332 (3d Cir.1980)

Agrawala v. Union of India
A.I.R.1980, Sikkim 22, 21 INDIAN J.INT’L L. 594–600 (1981)

Alberti v. Empresa Nicaraguense de la Carne
705 F.2d 250 (7th Cir. 1983), 22 ILM 835 (1983)

Alcom Ltd. v. Republic of Colombia
[1984] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 24 (H.L.), 23 ILM 719 (1984)

Alfred Dunhill of London v. Republic of Cuba
425 U.S. 682 (1986)

Ali Akbar v. U.A.R.
A 1966 SC 230

Allan Construction Ltd. v. Government of Venezuela
[1968] Que.P.R. 145, Que.S.C. 523

Amanat Khan v. Fredson Travel Inc.
[1982] 36 O.R.17 (Ont.H.C.), 64 ILR 733 (1983)

Arango v. Guzman Travel Advisors Corp.
621 F.2d 1371 (5th Cir. 1980)

Banco Nacional de Cuba v. Chase Manhattan Bank
505 F.Supp. 412 (S.D.N.Y. 1981)

Banque Compafina v. Banco de Guatemala et. al.
583 F.Supp. 320 (S.D.N.Y. 1984), 23 ILM 782 (1984)

Beacon Enterprises v. Menzies
715 F.2d 757 (2d Cir. 1983)

Behring International Inc. v. Imperial Iranian Air Force (Behring I)
475 F.Supp. 383 (D.N.J. 1979), UN-Mat. 479, 63 ILR 261 (1982)

Behring International Inc. v. Imperial Iranian Air Force (Behring II)
475 F.Supp. 396 (D.N.J. 1979), UN-Mat. 492

Berizzi Brothers Co. v. Steamship Pesaro
271 U.S. 562, 46 S.Ct. 611 (1926)

Beschluss des Bundesverfassungsgerichts zu Fragen der Staatenimmunität, vom 13. Dezember 1977
BVerfGE 46, 342, ZaöRV 1978, 245

Comment by Prof. Dr. Seidl-Hohenveldern

UN-Mat. 297, 65 IRL 146 (1984)

Booth Newspapers Inc. v. Regents of University of Michigan
280 N.W.2d 883, 90 Mich.App. 99 (Mich.App. 1979)

Boyce v. United States
93 F.Supp. 866 (D.C.Iowa 1950)

Braka v. Bancomer S.N.C.
762 F.2d 222 (2d Cir. 1985), 24 ILM 1047 (1985)

Broadbent v. Organization of American States (OAS)
19 ILM 208 (1980) (D.C.Cir. 1980)

Brown v. Rolls Royce Ltd.
[1960] 1 W.L.R. 210 (H.L.)

Callajo v. Bancomer S.A.
764 F.2d 1101 (5th Cir. 1985), 24 ILM 1050 (1985)

Carey et. al. v. National Oil Corporation and Libyan Arab Republic
453 F.Supp. 1097 (S.D.N.Y. 1978), 17 ILM 1180 (1978), UN-Mat. 477, 63 ILR 164
Confirmed 592 F.2d 673 (2d Cir. 1979)

Carlson v. Nelson
285 N.W.2d 505, 204 Neb. 765 (Neb. 1979)

Castro v. Saudi Arabia
510 F.Supp. 309 (W.D.Tex. 1980), 63 ILR 419

Chapman v. Oakleigh Animal Products Ltd.
[1970] 8 KIR 1063

Chicago Bridge & Iron Comp. v. The Islamic Republic of Iran
19 ILM 1436 (N.D.Ill. 1980)

Civil Aeronautics v. Alitalia-Linee Aeree Italiane
328 F.Supp. 759 (E.D.N.Y. 1971)

Coast Pump Associates v. Stephen Tyler Corporation
133 Cal.Rptr. 88, 62 C.A.3d (Cal.App. 1976)

Commercial Ins. of Newark v. Pacific-Peru Construction Co.
558 F.2d 948 (9th Cir. 1977)

Compania Española v. Navemar
303 U.S. 68, 58 S.Ct. 432, 82 L.Ed. 667.

Congo v. Venne
[1971] R.C.S. 997, [1971] 22 D.L.R.2d 669, 64 ILR 24 (1983)

Corporación Venezolana de Fomento v. Vintero Sales
629 F.2d 786 (2d Cir. 1980)

Delahite v. United States
346 U.S. 15 (1953)

Dames & More v. Regan
453 U.S. 654, 101 S.Ct. 2972, 69 L.Ed.2d 218 (1981)
Online Publication

De Howorth v. The SS ‘India’
1921 CPD 451

Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Jean Venne
[1971] R.C.S. 997, [1971] 22 D.L.R.2d 669, 64 ILR 24 (1983)

De Sanchez v. Banco Central de Nicaragua
515 F.Supp. 900 (E.D.La. 1981)

Desikacharyulu v. S.
A 1964 SC 807

Dessaules v. Republic of Poland
[1944] 4 D.L.R. 1, [1944] S.C.R. 275

Dickinson v. Minister of Pensions
[1953] 1 Q.B. 228, [1952] 2 All E R 1031

Discroll v. United States
525 F.2d 136 (9th Cir. 1975)

Duff Development Co. v. The Government of Kelantan
[1924] A.C. 797

Edlow International Co. v. Nuklearna Elektrikarna Krsko
414 F.Supp. 827 (D.D.C. 1977), 63 ILR 100 (1982)

Ex Parte Muir
254 U.S. 522, 41 S.Ct. 185, 65 L.Ed. 383

Ex Parte Peru
318 U.S. 578

First National City Bank v. Banco Para el Comercio Exterior de Cuba (BANCEC)
103 S.Ct. 2591 (1983)

Flota Maritima Browning de Cuba v. Motor Vessel Ciudad
335 F.2d 619 (4th Cir. 1964)

Flota Maritima Browning de Cuba v. ‘Canadian Conqueror’ and Republic of China
[1962] 34 D.L.R.2d 628, [1962] S.C.R. 598

Frovola v. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
761 F.2d 370 (7th Cir. 1985)

Giampaoli v. Califano
628 F.2d 1190 (9th Cir. 1980)

Gilson v. Republic of Ireland
682 F.2d 1022 (D.C. Cir. 1982)

Gittler v. German Information Center
408 N.Y.S.2d 600 (Sup.Ct.N.Y. 1978), Digest United States Practice, 1978, 879–883

Gray v. Permanent Mission of the Congo to the United Nations
443 F.Supp. 816 (S.D.N.Y. 1978), 63 ILR 121 (1982)

Gurdwara & Co. v. Rattan
A 1955 SC 576

Harris Corporation v. National Iranian Radio and Television
691 F.2d 1344 (11th Cir. 1982), 22 ILM 434 (1983)

Harris v. VAO Intourist, Moscow
481 F.Supp. 1056 (E.D.N.Y. 1979), 63 ILR 318 (1982)

Hispano Americana Mercantil S.A. v. Central Bank of Nigeria
[1979] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 277 (C.A.)

Hochgurtel v. San Felipo
253 N.W. 2d 526, 78 Wis.2d 70 (Wis.1977)

Home v. Guy
[1877] 5 Ch.D. 901

Hunt v. Mobil Oil Corporation
550 F.2d 68 (2d Cir. 1977), cert. den., 434 U.S. 984, 98 S.Ct. 608, 57 L.Ed.2d 477

Hurst v. Evans
[1917] 1 K.B. 351

I Congreso del Partido
[1981] 2 All E R 1064 (H.L.), [1981] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 367, [1983] 1 A.C. 244, 64 ILR 307 (1983)

International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM) v. Opec
477 F.Supp. 553 (C.D. Cal. 1979)

International Shoe Co. v. Washington
326 U.S. 310 (1945)

Inter-Science Research and Development Services (PTY) Ltd. v. Republica Popular de Moçambique
1980 2 SA 111 (T), 64 ILR 689 (1983)

Intro Properties (U.K.) Ltd. v. Sauvel
[1983] 1 Q.B. 1019 (1983), 2 W.L.R. 1

Ipitrade International S.A. v. Federal Republic of Nigeria
465 F.Supp. 824 (D.D.C. 1978), 17 ILM 1395 (1978), 63 ILR 196 (1982)

Jafari v. Islamic Republic of Iran
539 F.Supp. 209 (N.D.Ill. 1982), 21 ILM 767 (1982)

Jackson v. People’s Republic of China
550 F.Supp. 869 (N.D.Ala. 1982)

Jet Line Services Inc. v. M/V Marsa El Hariga
462 F.Supp. 1165 (D.Md. 1978)

Joseph Constantine Steamship Line Ltd. v. Imperial Smelting
[1942] A.C. 154, [1941] 2 All E R 165 (H.L.)

Juan Ismael & Co. v. Indonesian Government
[1954] 3 All E R 236, [1955] A.C. 72, [1954] 3 W.L.R. 531, [1954] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 175

Kaffraria Property v. The Government of Zambia
1980 (2) SA 709 (E), 64 ILR 708 (1983)

Kalamazoo Spice Extraction Co. v. The Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia
24 ILM 1278 (W.D.Mich. 1985)

Kashani v. United Arab Republics
A.I.R. 1966 SC 230, 60 AJIL 861 (1966), 64 ILR 489 (1983)

Krajina v. Tass Agency
[1949] 2 All E R 274 (C.A.)

Le Gouvernement de la République Démocratique du Congo v. Jean Venne
[1971] R.C.S. 997, [1971] 22 D.L.R.2d 669, 64 ILR 24 (1983)

Letelier v. Republic of Chile (Letelier I)
488 F.Supp. 665 (D.D.C. 1980), 19 ILM 409 (1980)

Letelier v. Republic of Chile (Letelier II)
502 F.Supp. 259 (D.D.C. 1980), 19 ILM 1418 (1980)

Letelier v. Republic of Chile (Letelier III)
567 F.Supp. 1490 (S.D.N.Y. 1983)

Libra Bank Ltd. v. Banco Nacional de Costa Rica
676 F2d 47 (2d Cir. 1982), 21 ILM 618 (1982)

Libyan American Oil Company (LIAMCO) v. Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
482 F.Supp. 1175 (D.D.C. 1980)

Lindgren v. United States
665 F2d 978 (9th Cir. 1982)

Marine Steel Ltd. v. The Government of the Marshall Islands
NEW ZEALAND L.J. 506 (1981), High Court of Auckland, 29 July 1981 (A 533/81)

Maritime International Nominees Establishment (MINE) v. The Republic of Guinea
21 ILM 1355 (D.C.Cir. 1982)

Matter of Rio Grande Transport Inc.
516 F.Supp. 1155 (S.D.N.Y. 1981), 63 ILR 604 (1982)

Matter of Sedco Inc.
543 F.Supp. 561, 21 ILM 318 (S.D.Tex. 1982)

McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. The Islamic Republic of Iran
758 F.2d 341 (8th Cir. 1985)

McGee v. International Life Insurance Co.
355 U.S. 220 (1957)

McKeel v. The Islamic Republic of Iran
722 F.2d 582 (9th Cir. 1983)

Mighell v. Sultan of Johore
[1894] 1 Q.B. 149

Miller v. Minister of Pensions
[1947] 2 All E R 372

Mol Inc. v. People’s Republic of Bangladesh
572 F.Supp. 79 (D.Or. 1983)

National American Corporation v. Federal Republic of Nigeria
448 F.Supp. 622 (S.D.N.Y. 1978), 17 ILM 1407 (1978), 63 ILR 63 (1982)
Confirmed 597 F.2d 314 (2d Cir. 1979), 63 ILR 137

O’Connell Machinery Company Inc. v. M/V ‘Americana’
566 F.Supp. 1381 (S.D.N.Y. 1983)

Ohntrup v. Firearms Center Inc.
516 F.Supp. 1281 (Ed.D.Pa. 1981)

Olsen by Sheldon v. Government of Mexico
729 F.2d 641 (9th Cir. 1984)

Outbound Maritime Corporation v. P.T. Indonesian Consortium of Construction Industries(ICCI) Outbound I
575 F.Supp. 1222 (S.D.N.Y. 1983)

Outbound II
582 F.Supp. 1136 (D.Md. 1984)

Pan American Tankers Corp. v. Republic of Vietnam
291 F.Supp. 49 (S.D.N.Y. 1968)

Penthouse Studios Inc. v. Government of Venezuela
[1969] 8 D.L.R.3d 686 (C.A.), 64 ILR 20 (1983)

Perez v. The Bahamas
482 F.Supp. 1208 (D.D.C. 1980), 63 ILR, 350 (1982)

Planmount Ltd. v. The Republic of Zaire
[1980] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 393

Prejean v. Sonatrach Inc.
652 F.2d 1260 (5th Cir. 1981)

Puente v. Spanish National State
116 F.2d 43 (2d Cir. 1940), cert. den., 314 U.S. 627, 62 S.Ct. 57, 86 L.Ed. 501 (1941)

Qureshi v. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
PLD 1981, 1, Supreme Court, 377, 20 ILM 1060 (1981), 64 ILR 585 (1983)

Rahimtoola v. Nizam of Hyderabad
[1957] 3 All E.R. 441, [1957] 3 W.L.R. 884, [1958] A.C. 379

Republic of Mexico v. Hoffmann
324 U.S. 30 (1945)

République Démocratique du Congo v. Jean Venne
[1971] R.C.S. 997, [1971] 22 D.L.R.2d 669, 64 ILR 24 (1983)

Re Royal Bank of Canada and Corriveau et al.
[1980] 103 D.L.R.3d 520 (Ont.H.C.), 64 ILR 69 (1983)

Sherman Inc. v. United States
199 F.2d 504 (8th Cir. 1952)

Skeen v. Federative Republic of Brazil
566 F.Supp. 1414 (D.D.C. 1983)

Smith v. Canadian Javelin Ltd.
[1976] 68 D.L.R.3d 428 (Ont.H.C.), 64 ILR 47 (1983)

Sperry International Trade v. Government of Israel
532 F.Supp. 901 (S.D.N.Y. 1982), 21 ILM 1073 (1982)
Confirmed 21 ILM 1066 (2d Cir. 1982)

S & S Machinery Co. v. Masinexportimport (MASIN)
706 F.2d 411 (2d Cir. 1983)

Sugarman v. Aeromexico
626 F.2d 270 (3d Cir. 1980)

Texas Trading Corp. v. Federal Republic of Nigeria and Central Bank of Nigeria
647 F.2d 300 (2d Cir. 1981)

Thai-Europe Tapioca Service Ltd. v. Government of Pakistan
[1975] 3 All E R 961, [1975] 1 W.L.R. 1485 (C.A.), 64 ILR 81 (1983)

The Bremen v. Zapata-Off-Shore Co.
407 U.S. 1, 92 S.Ct. 1907, 32 L.Ed.2d 513 (1972)

The Christina
[1938] A.C. 484

The Glendarroch
[1894] P. 226, 63 L.J. Adm. 89, 6 R. 686, 70 L.T. 344

The Parlement Belge
[1880] 5 P.D. 197, [1874–80] All E R 104

The Pesaro
255 U.S. 216 (1921), 41 S.Ct. 308, 65 L.Ed. 592

The Philippine Admiral
[1977] A.C. 373

The Porto Alexandre
[1920] P. 30, [1918–19] All E R 615, [1920] A.C. 30

The Schooner Exchange v. McFaddon et al.
11 U.S. [7 Cranch] 116 (1812)

The Uganda Holding Co. (Holdings) Ltd. v. The Government of Uganda
[1979] 1 Lloyd’s Rep. 481

Thompson v. United States
592 F.2d 1104 (9th Cir. 1979)

Tigchon v. Island of Jamaica
591 F.Supp. 765 (W.D.Mich. 1984)

Transamerican S.S. Corp. v. Somali Democratic Republic
767 F.2d 998 (D.D.C. 1985)

Trendtex Trading Co. v. Central Bank of Nigeria
[1977] 1 Lloyd’s Rep. 581

U Kyaw Din v. His Britannic Majesty’s Government of the United Kingdom and the Union of Burma
23 ILR 214 (1956), [1948] Ann.Dig. 137 (No. 42)

United Arab Republic v. Kashani
64 ILR 394 (1983)

United Euram v. U.S.S.R.
461 F.Supp. 609 (S.D.N.Y. 1978), 63 ILR 228 (1982)

United States v. Lee
106 U.S. 196 (1882)

United States v. Sampol
636 F.2d 621 (D.C. Cir., 1980)

Upton v. Empire of Iran
459 F.Supp. 264 (D.D.C. 1978), 63 ILR 211 (1982)

Velidor v. C/P/G Benghazi
653 F.2d 812 (3d Cir. 1981), 21 ILM 621 (1982), 63 ILR 622 (1982)

Verlinden B.V. v. Central Bank of Nigeria (Supreme Court)
461 U.S. 480, 103 S.Ct. 1962, 76 L.Ed.2d 81, 51 U.S.L.W. 4567, 22 ILM 647 (1983)

Verlinden B.V. v. Central Bank of Nigeria (District Court)
647 F.2d 320 (2d Cir. 1981)

Venne v. République Démocratique du Congo
[1968] Que.R.P. (2) 6 (C.S.), [1969] 5 D.L.R.3d, 128, 64 ILR 1 (1983)

Victory Transport Inc. v. Comisaria General de Abasticimientos y Transportes
336 F.2d 354 (2d Cir. 1964)

Williams v. United States
350 U.S. 857, 76 S.Ct. 100, 100 L.Ed. 761 (1955)

Wolf v. Banco Nacional de Mexico S.A.
739 F.2d 1458 (9th Cir. 1984)

Wood v. Schwartz
88 F.Supp. 385 (W.D.Pa. 1950)

Wyle v. Bank Melli of Teheran, Iran
577 F.Supp. 1148

Yessenin-Volpin v. Novosti Press Agency (Tass)
443 F.Supp. 849 (S.D.N.Y. 1978)

Youssef M. Nada Establishment v. Central Bank of Nigeria
16 ILM 501 (1977), Landgericht Frankfurt (Germany)

Zodiak v. Polish People’s Republic
[1977] 81 D.L.R.3d 656 (C.A.Que.), 64 ILR 51 (1983)


Adede, A.D.
The United Kingdom Abandons the Doctrine of Absolute Sovereign Immunity
6 BROOKLYN J. INT’L L. 1997–215 (1980)

Aguda, Akinola
Law and Practice Relating to Evidence in Nigeria
London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1980

American Law Institute
Model Code on Evidence
Chestnut, Philadelphia, 1942

Asencio, Diego C. & Dry, Robert W.
An Assessment of the Service Provisions of the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976

8 JOURNAL OF LEGISLATION (Notre Dame Law School) 230–249 (1981)

Ashman, Allan
People’s Republic Told to Pay $42.1 Million Debt From 1911
Jackson v. People’s Republic of China
69 A.B.A.J. 512(2) (1983)

L’onere della prova
Roma, 1932

The Law Reform Commission
Reform of Evidence Law 1980
Discussion Paper N° 16
Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1980

Badr, Gamal Moursi
State Immunity
An Analytical and Prognostic View
The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1984

Bankas, Ernest K.
The State Immunity Controversy in International Law
Private Suits Against Sovereign States
New York: Springer, 2005

Barnes, A. James, Dworkin, Terry and Richards Eric L.
Law for Business, 9th Edition
New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006

Bartholomew, G.M.
The Commercial Law of Malaysia
A Study in the Reception of English Law
Singapore: Malayan Law Journal Ltd., 1965

Bennion, Francis
Statutory Interpretation
London: Butterworths, 1984

Berber, Friedrich
Lehrbuch des Völkerrechts
München: Beck, 1977
Erstmals veröffentlicht im Jahre 1969

Die Europäische Gemeinschaft
Rechtsordnung und Politik
Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1982

Bird S.
The State Immunity Act of 1978
13 INT’L LAWYER 619–643 (1979)

Block, Mark A.
De Sanchez v. Banco Central de Nicaragua:
An Extension of the Restrictive Theory of Sovereign Immunity
7 N.C.J.INT’L L. & COMM.REG. 419–431 (1982)

Brownlie, Ian
Principles of Public International Law
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966

Bodin, Jean
On Sovereignty (1576)
Six Books of the Commonwealth
Edited by Professor Julian Franklin
New York: Seven Treasures Publications, 2009

Bowett, D.W.
The State Immunity Act 1978
37 Cambridge L.J. 193–196 (1978)

Bowman & Harris
Multilateral Treaties
Index and Current Status
London: Butterworths, 1984

Botha, Neville
Some Comments on the Foreign States immunities Act 87 of 1981
XV COMP. & INT’L L.J. SOUTH AFRICA 334–343 (1982)

Bradley, A.G.
Service of Process under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976:
The Arguments For Exclusivity
14 CORNELL INT’L L.J. 357–368 (1981)

Brittenham, David L.
Foreign Sovereign Immunity and Commercial Activity: A Conflicts Approach
83 COLUM.L.REV. 1440–1512 (1983)

Práctica Procesal Civil
Tome I
Barcelona: Bosch, 1979

Brooke, Julia
The International Law Association Draft Convention on Foreign Sovereign Immunity: A Comparative Approach
23 VA.J.INT’L L. 635 (1983)

The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976 in Practice
73 AJIL 200 (1979)

Brownlie, Jan
Principles of Public International Law
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976

Butler, W. E.
International Law in Comparative Perspective
Ed. By William Elliott Butler
Alphen an den Rijn: Sijthoff en Noordhoff, 1980

Comparative Approaches to International Law
190 RCADI (1985-I), 9–90

Cairns, Bernard C.
Australian Civil Procedure
Sydney: The Law Book Company Ltd., 1981

Cairns, G.
Jurisdiction: Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act
TEX.INT’L L.J. 277–289 (1981)

Uniform Evidence Act, Livre II
Règles Générales de Preuve, Titre I, Fardeau de la Preuve
Commission de Réforme du Droit du Canada
Rapport sur la Preuve (Premier Rapport)
Ottawa: Ministre des Approvisionnements et Services, 1977

Report of the Federal/Provincial Task Force on Uniform Rules of Evidence
Prepared for the Uniform Law Conference of Canada
Toronto: The Carswell Company Ltd., 1982 [U.L.C.C. Report]

Cappelletti, Mauro & Perillo, Joseph M.
Civil Procedure in Italy
The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1965

Carl, B.M.
Suing Foreign Governments in American Courts:
The United States Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act in Practice
33 SOUTHWESTERN L.J. 1009–1077 (1979)

Castel, Jean-Gabriel
Droit International Privé Québécois
Toronto: Butterworths, 1980

Canadian Conflict of Laws
2nd Edition
Toronto: Butterworths, 1986

Charlesworth & Percy
On Negligence
7th Edition
London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1983

Coad, Brian Douglas
The Canadian State Immunity Act
XIV LAW & POL’Y INT’L BUS. 1197–1220 (1982–83)

Crocker, Lawrence
Sovereign Immunity in the United States
29 I.C.L.Q. 580–510 (1980)

Chia, J.
Reception of English Law under Section 3 and 5 of the Civil Law Act 1956
Revised 1972

Clerk & Lindsell
On Torts
15th Edition
London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1982

Coester-Waltjen, Dagmar
Internationales Beweisrecht
Ebelsbach am Main: Gremer, 1983 (Münchner Universitätsschriften,
Juristische Fakultät, Band 53)

Coudenhove-Kalergi, Richard N.
Wien-Leipzig: Paneuropa Verlag, 1926

Couture, Eduardo J.
Fundamentos del Derecho Procesal Civil
Buenos Aires: Depalma, 1981

Coyne, Thomas A.
Rules of Civil Procedure for the United States District Courts
Practice Comments
New York: Clark Boardman Company Ltd., 1983

Cross, Sir Rupert
Cross on Evidence
5th ed.
London: Butterworths, 1979

Cross on Evidence
2nd Australian Edition
By J.A. Gobbo, David Byrne, J.D. Heydon
Sidney: Butterworths, 1980

Introduction to Criminal Law
10th Edition
London: Butterworths, 1984

Cross, Sir Rupert & Wilkins, Nancy
An Outline of the Law of Evidence
5th Edition
London: Butterworths, 1980

Curzon, L.B.
Law of Evidence
Plymouth: McDonald & Evans Ltd., 1978

Encyclopédie Juridique
2e Édition, Procédure III, ‘Preuve’

David, René
Les Grands Systèmes de Droit Contemporains
6e Édition
Paris: Dalloz, 1974

English Law and French Law
London: Steven & Sons, 1980

D. Carl IV
The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976
N.C.J.INT’L L. & COMM.REG. 206–233 (1978)

Delaume, Georges R.
The State Immunity Act of the United Kingdom
73 AJIL 185–199 (1979)

Transnational Contracts
Applicable Law and Settlement of Disputes (A Study in Conflict Avoidance)
New York, Oceana

Ducharme, Léo
Précis de la Preuve
En matière civiles et commerciales
2e Édition
Ottawa: Éditions de l’Université d’Ottawa, 1982

Dubey, Harihar Prasad
The Judicial Systems of India
Bombay: N.M. Tripathi Private Ltd., 1968

Dugard, John
International Law in South Africa:
The Restrictive Approach to Sovereign Immunity Approved

Dutoit, Bernard
Droit comparé et droit international public
Paris, 1976

Echandia, Hernando Davis
Teoría General de la Prueba Judicial
Tomo I, 5e Ed.
Buenos Aires: Victor P. De Zavalia, 1981

Eder, Phanor J.
A Comparative Study of Anglo-American and Latin American Law
New York: New York University Press, 1950

Eggleston, Sir Richard
Evidence, Proof and Probability
2nd Edition
London: Weidenfels & Nicholson, 1983

Eisner, Frédéric W.
Beweislastfragen und Beweiswürdigung im deutschen und amerikanischen Zivilprozess
ZZP, Bd. 89, 78–90

Enriquez, Emilio Rioseco
La prueba ante la Jurisprudencia
Derecho Civil y Procesal Civil, Parte General y Reglas Comunes
Secunda Edición
Santiago: Editorial Jurídica de Chile, 1982

Erasmus, Gerhard
Proceedings against Foreign States
The South African Foreign States Immunities Act
SOUTH AFRICAN Y.B.INT’L L. 92–105 (1982)

Fasching, Hans W.
Lehrbuch des österreichischen Zivilprozessrechts
Wien: Manz, 1984

Folz, Hans-Ernst
Die Geltungskraft fremder Hoheitsäusserungen
Eine Untersuchung über die anglo-amerikanische Act of State Doctrine
Baden Baden: Nomos, 1975

Fox, Hazel
The Law of State Immunity
Oxford: Oxford Library of International Law, 2004

García, Carlos A.
Derecho Procesal Civil
Mexico: Editorial Porrúa S.A., 1981

Ghestin, Jacques & Goubeaux, Gilles
Traité du Droit Civil
2e Édition
Paris: L.G.D.J., 1982

Glasbeek, Harry J.
Evidence Cases and Materials
Toronto: Butterworths, 1977

Cases and Materials on Evidence
Australian Edition
Sydney: Butterworths, 1974

Graham, Michael H.
Text, Rules, Illustrations and Problems
The Commentary Method
St. Paul (Minn.): National Institute for Trial Advocacy, 1983

Federal Rules of Evidence in a Nutshell
St. Paul (Minn.): American Textbook Series, 1981

Grzybowsky, Kazimierz
Soviet Public International Law, Doctrines — Diplomatic Practice
Leyden: A.W. Sijthoff, 1970

Guggenheim, Paul
Traité de droit international public
Genève: Librairie de l’Université, 1967

Guldener, Max
Schweizerisches Zivilprozessrecht
3. Auflage
Zürich: Schulthess, 1979

Habscheid, Walther J.
Droit Judiciaire Privé Suisse
2e Édition
Genève: Librairie de l’Université, 1981

Habscheid, Walther J. & Schaumann, Wilfried
Die Immunität ausländischer Staaten nach Völkerrecht und deutschem Zivilprozessrecht
Berichte der deutschen Gesellschaft für Völkerrecht (BDGVR), Bd. 8
Karlsruhe: C.F. Müller, 1968

Halsbury’s Laws of England
4th Edition, Vol. 17, ‘Evidence’
London: Butterworths

Halsbury’s Statutes of England
3rd Edition, Vol. 48 (Continuation Volume)
London: Butterworths

Hansard Parliamentary Debates
5th Series, House of Lords, Official Report
Session 1977–1978
London: Butterworths

5th Series, House of Commons, Official Report
Session 1977–1978
London: Butterworths

Harvard Draft Convention
Competence of Courts in Regard to Foreign States
Rep. by Philip C. Jessup
26 AJIL 452 (1932 Suppl.)

Harvard University
A Uniform System of Citation
13th Edition
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Law Review Association, 1982

Hearing before the Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Procedure
Committee of the Judiciary, United States Senate, 91st Cong., 2nd Session, June 3, 1970, Washington, D.C., 1970

International Law
Cases and Materials
St. Paul (West): American Casebook Series, 1980

Higgins, Rosalyn
Certain Unresolved Aspects of the Law of State Immunity
XXIX NETH.INT’L L.REV. 265 (1982)

Hilf, Meinhard
Die rechtliche Bedeutung des Verfassungsprinzips der parlamentarischen Demokratie für den europäischen Integrationsprozess
Europa Recht 1984, pp. 9 ff.

Hoffmann & Zeffert
South African Law of Evidence
3rd Edition
Durban: Butterworths, 1983

House Report
H.R. Report 94–1487
15 ILM 1398 (1976), U.S.Code & Adm. News 6604 (1976)

Hunt Holmes, Patricia
Establishing Jurisdiction under the Commercial-Activities Exception to the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976
19 HOUS.L.REV. 1003–1023 (1982)

Inter-American Draft Convention on Jurisdictional Immunity of States
22 ILM 292 (1983)

International Law Association (ILA)
Report of the Fifty-Ninth Conference Held at Belgrade, 1980

International Law Commission (ILC)
United Nations Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Property, Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 2 December 2004, Not yet in force. See General Assembly resolution 59/38, annex, Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-ninth Session, Supplement No. 49 (A/59/49)

James, Fleming & Hazard, Geoffrey
Civil Procedure
2nd Edition
Toronto: Little, Brown & Company, 1977

Johnson, Eric & Worthington, Chr.
Minimum Contacts Jurisdiction under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act
12 GA.J.INT’L & COMP.L. 209–230 (1982)

Jowitt’s Dictionary of English Law
2nd Edition, by John Burke
London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1977

Jurisdiction of U.S. Courts in Suits Against Foreign States
U.S. Congress, House of Representatives
Subcommittee on Administrative Law and Governmental Relations of the Committee on the Judiciary
Hearing, June 4, 1976
Washington, D.C., 1976

Kahale III, G. & Vega, M. A.
Immunity and Jurisdiction
Toward a Uniform Body of Law in Actions Against Foreign States
19 COLUM.J.TRANSNAT’L L. 211–258 (1979)

Suing Foreign Governments: A Procedural Compass
34 STAN.L.REV. 385 (1982)

Kélada, Henri
Code de Procédure Civile du Québec
Textes et Arrêts (Articles 1 à 481)
Montréal: Wilson et Lafleur Ltée, 1980

Kummer, Max
Grundriss des Zivilprozessrechts
3. Auflage
Bern: Stümpfli, 1978

Lal, Jadgish
Code of Civil Procedure, 1908
As amended up to date by C.P.C. Amendment Act N° 104 of 1976
Allahabad: Law Publishers Sardar Patel, 1981

Lalive, Jean-Flavien
Contrats entre États ou entreprises étatiques et personnes privées
181 RCADI (1983-III), pp. 13 ff.

L’immunité de juridiction des états et des organisations internationales
84 RCADI (1953-III), pp. 209 ff.

Lauterpacht, E., Q.C.
International Law Reports
Cambridge: Grotius Publishers

Lauterpacht, Hersch
International Law
Ed. By E. Lauterpacht, Q.C.
Vol. 3
London: Cambridge University Press, 1977

The Problem of Jurisdictional Immunities of Foreign States
28 BRIT.Y.B.INT’L L. 220–272 (1951)

Lehr, Ernest
Éléments de Droit Civil Anglais
2e Édition, par Jacques Dumas
Tome Premier
Paris: Sirey, 1906

Leigh, Monroe
Alberti v. Empresa Nicaraguense de la Carne (Case Note)
77 AJIL 888 (1983)

Jackson v. People’s Republic of China (Case Note)
Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act — Liability of People’s Republic of China for defaulted 1911 bonds — state succession
77 AJIL 146–148 (1983)

Matter of Sedco, Inc. (Case Note)
Sovereign Immunity — Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act
Commercial Activity and Tortious Conduct Exception not Applicable to Support Jurisdiction over Defendant in Oil Spill Disaster
77 AJIL 149–151 (1983)

Lilly, Graham C.
An Introduction to the Law of Evidence
St. Paul (West), 1978

Lugo, Andrea
Manuale di Diritto Processuale Civile
8e Ed.
Milano: A. Giuffrè, 1983

Mandrioli, Crisanto
Corso di Diritto Processuale Civile
Tome II: Il Processo di Cognizione
2e Ed.
Torino: G. Giappichelli, 1978

Mann, Francis A.
A New Aspect of the Restrictive Theory of Sovereign Immunity
31 I.C.L.Q. 573–575 (1982)

The State Immunity Act 1978
50 BRIT.Y.B.INT’L L. 43 (1979)

Materials on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property
UN-Doc. ST/LEG­ /SER.B./20
New York: United Nations, 1982

Maxwell on the Interpretation of Statutes
12th ed., by P. St. J. Langan
London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1969

Leçons de Droit Civil
7e Édition, par François Chabas et Michel de Jughart
Paris: Éditions Montchrestien, 1983

McCormick on Evidence
by Edward W. Cleary, 3d ed.
Lawyers Edition (Homebook Series)
St. Paul: West, 1984

International Law in Contemporary Perspective
The Public Order of the World Comity
Cases and Materials
New York: Foundation Press, 1981

McLeod, James G.
The Conflict of Laws
Calgary, Alberta: Carswell Legal Publishers, 1983

L’onere della prova
Padova, 1942

Moore, James W.
Moore’s Federal Practice
2nd Edition, 1979

Musielak, Hans Joachim
Die Grundfragen der Beweislast im Zivilprozess
Berlin, New York: De Gruyter, 1975

Grundfragen des Beweisrechts
München: Beck, 1984

Nagel, Heinrich
Internationales Zivilprozessrecht für deutsche Praktiker
Münster: Aschendorff, 1980

Nash, Gerard
Civil Procedure
Cases and Text
Sydney: The Law Book Company Ltd., 1976

Nash, Marian Lloyd
Digest of United States Practice in International Law, Vol. 1978
Washington, D.C.: Depart of State Publications 9162, 1980

Ninth Decennial Digest
American Digest System
Part I, 1976–1981

Oppenheim, Lassa
International Law
8th Edition, by Hersch Lauterpacht
New York, 1955
Originally published in 1905/1906

Organization of American States (OAS)
Inter-American Draft Convention on Jurisdictional Immunity of States
22 ILM 292 (1983)

Partsch, Karl Joseph
Die Anwendung des Völkerrechts im innerstaatlichen Recht.
Eine Überprüfung der Transformationslehre.
Karlsruhe: C.F. Müller, 1964 (BDGVR, Bd. 6)

Patrikis, Ernest T.
Foreign Central Bank Property
Immunity from Attachment in the United States
1982 U.ILL.L.REV. 265–287

Pell, Terence J.
The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976: Direct Effects and Minimal Contacts
14 CORNELL INT’L.L.J. 97–115 (1981)

Phipson on Evidence
13th ed., by John Huxley Buzzard
Richard May and M. N. Howard
London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1982

Phipson and Elliott
Manual of the Law of Evidence
11th Edition
by D. W. Elliott
London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1980

Pope, Russell J.
Maritime Arrest Under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act: An Anachronism
62 TEX.L.REV. 511–535 (1983)

Prieto-Castro y Ferrándiz
Tratado de Derecho Procesal Civil
Pamplona: Editorial Aranzadi, 1982

Prütting, Hans
Gegenwartsprobleme der Beweislast
5. Auflage
München, Beck, 1965

Rapports Explicatifs Concernant la Convention Européenne sur l’Immunité des États et le Protocole Additionnel
Strasbourg: Conseil de l’Europe, 1972

Raynaud, Pierre & Vanel, Marguerite
Répertoire de Procédure Civile
Paris: Éditions Montchrestien, 1984

Ress, Georg
Entwicklungstendenzen der Immunität ausländischer Staaten
40 ZaöRV 217 (1980)

Les tendances de l’évolution de l’immunité de l’État étranger
in: Droit international et droit interne
Édité par Michael Bothe et Raul E. Vinesa
Colloque argentino-allemand de droit constitutionnel, Buenos Aires, 1979
Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1982 (Schriften zum Völkerrecht, Bd. 73)

Droit International Public
Notes et Documents
Tome 3, Supplément
Montréal: Les Éditions Thémis, 1983

Rodriguez, Gustavo H.
Curso de Derecho Probatoria
4e Ed.
Bogotá: Ediciones Librería del Profesional, 1983

Rosenberg, Leo
Die Beweislast
5. Auflage
München und Berlin: Beck, 1965

13. Auflage
München: Beck, 1981

Rothstein, Paul F.
Evidence in a Nutshell: State and Federal Rules
2nd Edition
St. Paul (West), 1981

Rousseau, Charles
Droit international public
Tome IV: Les relations internationales
Paris: Sirey, 1979

Row, Sanjiva
Code of Civil Procedure (Act V of 1908)
by Malik
3rd Edition, Vol. 1
Allahabad: Law Book Company, 1962

Rules of Civil Procedure for the United States District Courts
Practice Comments by Thomas A. Coyne
New York: Clark Boardman Company Ltd., 1983

Salmand & Heuston
On the Law of Torts
18th Edition
by R. F. V. Heuston and R. S. Chambers
London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1981

Sarkar’s Law of Evidence
India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma & Ceylon
13th Edition
by Prabhas C. Sarkar and Sudipto Sarkar
Calcutta: S. C. Sarkar & Sons, 1981

Sarkar on Civil Procedure
6th Edition, as amended by Act 104 of 1976
by Prabhas C. Sarkar and Sudipto Sarkar
Calcutta: S. C. Sarkar & Sons, 1979

Scardaccione, Aurelio
Le Prove
2d Ed.
Torino, 1971

Schmitthoff, C. M. & Wooldridge, F.
The nineteenth century doctrine of sovereign immunity and the importance of the growth of state trading
2 DEN.J.INT’L L. & POL’Y 199 (1972)

Schubert, M. H.
Federal Question Jurisdiction Over Actions Brought by Aliens against Foreign States
CORNELL INT’L L.J. 463–488 (1982)

Schwarzenberger, Georg
The Inductive Approach to International Law
London, 1965

Schwering, Walter
System der Beweislast im englisch-amerikanischen Zivilprozess
Karlsruhe: C. F. Müller, 1969 (Berkeley-Kölner Rechtsstudien, Bd. 11)

Sgro, Jill A.
China’s stance on sovereign immunity: a critical perspective on Jackson v. People’s Republic of China
22 COLUM.J.TRANSNAT’L L. 101–133 (1983)

Sheridan, C. A. (ed.)
Malaya and Singapore, The Development of their Laws and Constitutions
London: Steven & Sons, 1961

Siewert, Clark C.
Reciprocal Influence of British and United States Law: Foreign Sovereign Immunity Law from the Schooner Exchange to the State Immunity Act 1978
13 VAND.J.TRANSNAT’L L. 761–794 (1980)

Simmons, Kevin P.
The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976: Giving the Plaintiff His Day in Court
64 FORDHAM L.REV. 543 (1977)

Sinclair, Ian
The Law of Sovereign Immunity. Recent Developments.
167 RCADI (1980-II) 117

Parliamentary Debates
Official Report, Vol. 39, 1979–80
The Laws of the Colony of Singapore, Edition of 1955

Sinnadurai, Visu
The Law of Contract in Malaysia and Singapore
Cases and Commentary
Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1979

Smallwood, J. M.
Recent Developments in the Anglo-American Doctrine of Foreign Sovereign Immunity
5 INT’L TRADE L.J. 296–318 (1980)

Smit, Hans
The Terms Jurisdiction and Competence in Comparative Law
10 AM.J.COMP.L. 164–169 (1961)

Smith, P. F. / Bailey, S.
The Modern English Legal System
London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1984

Transnational Legal Problems
Materials and Text
2nd Ed.
Minneola, N.Y.: Foundation Press, 1976

1982 Case and Documentary Supplement
Minneola, N.Y.: Foundation Press, 1982

Foreign Law in the Courts
Judicial Notice and Proof
54 Calif.L.Rev., 23 (1957)

Stone’s Justices Manual
113th Edition
Ed. by John Richman and A. T. Draycott
London: Butterworths, 1981

Sucharitkul, Sompong
Developments and Prospects of the Doctrine of State Immunity
Some Aspects of Codification and Progressive Development
XXIX NETH.INT’L L.REV. 252 (1982)

Immunités Juridictionnelles des États et de leurs Biens
Rapports du rapporteur spécial
Annuaire de la Commission du Droit International, 1986, Volume II, 2e Partie, New York: Nations Unies, 1988

Annuaire de la Commission du Droit International, 1984, Volume II, 2e Partie, New York: Nations Unies, 1986

Immunities of Foreign States Before National Authorities
149 RCADI (1976-I) 86

State Immunities and Trading Activities in International Law
London: Steven & Sons, 1959

Statutory Construction
Ed. By Sands
4th Edition
London, 1975

Sutherland, P.
Recent Statutory Developments in the Law of Foreign Sovereign Immunity
7 AUSTRALIAN Y.B.INT’L L. 27–71 (1981)

The International Legal System
Cases and Materials
2nd Edition
Minneola, N.Y.: Foundation Press, 1981

Tayer, James Bradley
A Preliminary Treatise on Evidence

Tesón, Fernando A.
The Relations Between International Law and Municipal Law: The Monism/Dualism Controversy, in: International Law and Municipal Law, ed. by Michael Bothe and Raul E. Vinesa, Colloque argentino-allemand de droit constitutionnel, Buenos Aires, 1979
Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1982 (Schriften zum Völkerrecht, Bd. 73)

The English and Empire Digest
Vol. 22, ‘Evidence’
London: Butterworths, 1974

The Pakistan Code
Vol. V (1880–1910)
Government of Pakistan
Karachi, 1966

The Statesman Yearbook
119th Edition, 1982–83
Ed. by John Paxton
London, 1982

Troya Cevallos, José Alfonso
Elementos de Derecho Procesal Civil, Tomo 1
Quito: Centro de Publicaciones Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1978

United Nations
Materials on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property
New York: United Nations, 1982 (UN-MAT.)

United Nations Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Property
Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 2 December 2004, Not yet in force. See General Assembly resolution 59/38, annex, Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-ninth Session, Supplement No. 49 (A/59/49)

Urteaga, Pedro S.
Derecho Procesal Civil
Tomo II
Secunda Edición
Lima, 1982

Vallée, Charles
A propos de la convention européenne sur l’immunité des États
9 REV.TRIM.DR.EUR. 205 (1973)

Varela/Bezerra/Sampio e Nova
Manual de Processo Civil
Coimbra: Coimbra Editora Limitada, 1984

Von Mehren, R. B.
The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976
17 COLUM.J.TRANSNAT’L L. 33–66 (1978)

Walder-Bohner, Hans Ulrich
3. Auflage
Zürich: Schulthess, 1983

Walker & Walker
The English Legal System
6th Edition, by R.J. Walker
London: Butterworths, 1985

Walter, Peter-Fritz
Gibt es eine Beweislastverteilung bei der Immunität von Staaten?

The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976: Its Origin, Meaning and Effect

Weiss, André
Compétence ou incompétence des tribunaux à l’égard des états étrangers
1 RCADI (1923) 525

West’s Encyclopedia of American Law
Second Edition
New York: Gale Group, 2008

White, Robin C. A.
The State Immunity Act 1978
42 MODERN L.REV. 72–79 (1979)

Digest of International Law
Vol. 6
Washington, D.C.: Department of State Publication 8350, 1968

Wigmore, John Henry
A Treatise on the Anglo-American System of Evidence in Trials at Common Law
10 Volumes, Vol. 9 ‘Evidence in Trials at Common Law.’
Rev. by James H. Chadburn
Boston, Toronto: Little, Brown & Company, 1981

Woodroffe & Amer Ali
Law of Evidence
14th Edition
Ed. and rev. by B. R. P. Singhal and Narayan Das
Allahabad: Law Book Company Ltd., 1979

Words and Phrases Legally Defined
Ed. by John B. Saunders
2nd Edition
London: Butterworths, 1969

Wright, Miller & Cooper
Federal Practice and Procedure, 1975

Yaffe, Robert H.
Direct Financial Effects under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act
14 LAW.AMERICAS 361–365 (1982)

Yannopoulos, A. N.
Foreign sovereign immunity and the arrest of state-owned ships: the need for an admiralty foreign sovereign immunities act
57 TUL.L.REV. 1274–1342 (1983)

©2015 Peter Fritz Walter. Some rights reserved.
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.