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Table of Contents

—Antipsychiatry
—Brain Research
—Cartesian Science and Worldview
—Code or Social Code
—Complexity
—Direct Perception
—Emotional Flow
—Inner Selves
—Krishnamurti, J. (K)
—Life Force
—Lozanov, Georgi
—Maharishi University
—Montessori Education
—Mythology
—Pleasure Function
—Psychodrama
—Relaxation/Meditation
—Perversion
—Television
—Waldorf Education


Antipsychiatry

Antipsychiatry is a movement founded by the psychiatrists Thomas Szasz and Ronald David Laing. Antipsychiatry claims that what we call ‘normal’ is a product of repression, denial, splitting, projection, introjection and other forms of destructive action on experience. It is radically estranged from the structure of being.

The more one sees this, the more senseless it is to continue with generalized descriptions of supposedly specifically schizoid, schizophrenic, hysterical ‘mechanisms.’

There are forms of alienation that are relatively strange to statistically ‘normal’ forms of alienation. The ‘normally’ alienated person, by reason of the fact that he acts more or less like everyone else, is taken to be sane. Other forms of alienation that are out of step with the prevailing state of alienation are those that are labeled by the ‘formal’ majority as bad or mad. Laing’s convincing criticism of conventional psychiatry, and Thomas Szasz’s book The Myth of Mental Illness (1984) show basic rules of the morally integer psychiatrist in our society.

Brain Research

Latest consciousness research suggests that the brain is something like an interface for the mind, and that mind is the larger notion, as it bears an essential connectedness with the whole of the universe and creation. This holistic view of the brain-mind replaces the former view that saw mind and brain as separated, thereby granting an undue importance and exclusiveness to the human brain in explaining cognition. Typically, this scientific residue concept was unable to explain extrasensorial perception (ESP) and psychic phenomena.

What is the relationship between the mind and the brain? This question was still some years ago controversial, but today we know that neural networks transmit vast amounts of motor and sensory data, and that mind is not a thing but a process; the process of cognition, which is identified with the process of life. The brain is a specific structure through which this process operates. Thus the relationship between mind and brain is one between process and structure.

Cartesian Science and Worldview

A Cartesian or Newtonian worldview is a life philosophy marked by a dominance of deductive and logical thinking to the detriment of the qualities of the right brain such as associative and imaginative thinking, and generally fantasy. It’s also a worldview that tends to disregard or deny dreams and dreaming, extrasensorial, multisensorial perception and ESP faculties, as well as genuine spirituality.

The term Cartesian has been coined from the name of French philosopher René Descartes. While nature is coded in energy patterns, Cartesian scientists deny the cosmic energy field as a ‘vitalistic theory;’ they splitted mind and matter into opposite poles.

Historically, and philosophically, it was not René Descartes who has been at the origin this schizoid worldview, but the so-called Eleatic School, a philosophical movement in ancient Greece that opposed the holistic and organic worldview represented by the philosophy of Heraclites; but it was through the affirmation and pseudo-scientific corroboration of the ancient Eleatic dualism that in the history of Western science, the reductionist approach to reality, which is actually a fallacy of perception, became the dominant science paradigm between approximately the 17th and the 20th centuries.

We are right now at a point in time where this limited worldview is gradually being overcome and replaced by the novel insights of quantum physics, systems theory, and a new holistic science paradigm that connects us back to the oldest of wisdom traditions.

Code or Social Code

The Code is a concept of psychoanalysis and means a codification in language of patterns of behavior that are part of human conduct — without asking if such patterns of behavior are wanted or unwanted, productive or counter-productive, legal or illegal. It has been observed by Freudian psychoanalysis that the code sets up a structure in the human psyche that is conducive to law-abiding behavior, while uncoded desires or forms of conduct tend to bring about chaos, destruction, and crime. Hence the necessity for the social policy maker to code as much as possible desires and social behaviors so as to humanize the desire contained in them and render these desires conscious and subject of conscious control. Desires are not coded cannot according to psychoanalysis be sublimated and will instead be repressed and projected. Jacques Lacan (1901–1981) and Françoise Dolto (1908–1988) have put particular stress upon society’s obligation to code desire in language.

Complexity

Complexity is a major characteristics of living systems; generally in all flow patterns, complexity and simplicity are complementary opposites. This is so not only in natural phenomena, but also in ontology and in human psychology. This duality that is inherent in human psychology has very well been recognized by the ancient Mesoamerican natives. Complexity is a function of the energy flow; when energy flows freely, complexity tends to be high, while it’s reduced when energy is blocked or obstructed. As a matter of evolution, life tends to increase in complexity over time.

Direct Perception

Direct Perception is the primary mode of learning that nature applies in evolution. Direct perception is the mode the human brain uses to receive and store information in its capacity as a passively organizing system.

The child learns his or her first language through direct perception, the picking-up of whole patterns, using the integrative and associative mode of the right brain. Obedience and imitation are not the appropriate means to develop the human potential; therefore civilization can only function on an outside or superficial level, but not as a motor of integrating man into a truly functional power unit that is operating on all levels at once.

The mainstream educational system has put this natural intelligent and holistic learning mode upside down in forcing children to learn with their left brain hemisphere only, cutting off the necessary mode of synthesis provided by the right brain hemisphere. This is the single major reason why the modern educational system, while it is very costly, is totally ineffective, and brings about people who are alienated from their own inner source, out of touch as they are with their innermost human potential. This also is the reason for the astonishing lack of creativity in the corporate world, that the world-famous coach and corporate trainer Edward de Bono deplores in his books.

Emotional Flow

While today’s mainstream psychology has to some extent admitted the cognitive nature of emotions, it has related emotions to thought and perception only and located them in the brain, while the overwhelming number of perennial science traditions and newest research on the human energy field shows that emotions are located in the human aura and possess an inherent quality of flow, as well as their own intrinsic intelligence. Thought and emotions are vibrations that flow through our etheric or luminous body. In this sense, also animals and plants do have emotions, which was something discarded or overlooked by traditional psychology, while Wilhelm Reich, as early as in the 1930s, was on the right track with his bioelectric evaluation of emotions, writing that emotions are specific functions of the protoplasm.

Emotions are manifestations of the »Life Force in the living organism. They are to be found as biogenetic and bioenergetic vibrations in the cell plasma. In this sense, emotions are functional, and they are directly related to all visceral life functions. An indication that an organism has died is the absence of emotional flow. This is valid also for human beings and in the sense that while people may physically be well alive, they may be emotionally dead since many years.

The conscious perception of our emotional flow includes awareness of our emotional predilection and sexual attraction in every given moment or situation. For example, a nurse should be conscious of her emotional flow regarding patients she is working with, or an educator needs to develop emotional awareness regarding any transitory erotic attractions toward the children they are working with.

Inner Selves

Inner Selves are energies in our psyche that form part of our total and integral wholeness. In the ideal case, they should be balanced and in harmony with each other. This means that all inner selves should work as a sort of inner team. It is essential that all members of this inner team are fully awake and communicate with each other.

Eric Berne recognized three essential inner selves: Inner Child, Inner Parent and Inner Adult. In my own research and work with the inner dialogue during a two-years Erickson hypnotherapy, I encountered the presence of additional entities such as the Inner Controller or Inner Critic as the instance in the psyche that represents the societal, cultural and moralistic values that we have internalized through education and conditioning. If the Inner Controller is hypertrophied and thus dominating the psyche, the result is that we are unable to realize our love desires. In addition to these inner selves, I encountered an entity of superior wisdom that I called Lux and a shadow entity I called Sad King and which embodied repressed pedoemotions that had turned into sadistic drives.

Inner Child is an inside entity, part-personality, or psychic energy, created between our 7th and 14th year of life, and that is part of our »inner triangle. Positively, the inner child energy is primarily emotional and wistful, predominantly creative. It is the motor of every human being’s creativity. Negatively, the inner child is either mute or cataleptic so that its energy cannot manifest, or else its energy is turned upside-down which makes an inner child that is rebellious, capricious, willful or overbearing.

Inner Adult is an inside entity, part-personality or psychic energy that represents our logical thinking, our reason, our maturity. Positively, it makes for our balanced decisions, our down-to-earth attitude and our sense for daily responsibilities. Negatively, the inner adult manifests as the intellectual nerd or through emotional frigidity, cynicism or an obsession to measure human relations on a scale of reasonableness or straightness without considering the emotional dimension and without sensitivity. The hypertrophied inner adult energy plays a major role in modern education where it results in devastating damage on the next generations’ emotional integrity.

Inner Parent is an inside entity, part-personality or psychic energy that represents our inner value standards, our moral attitudes, our caring for self and others, but negatively also our judging others, our I-know-better attitude or blunt interference into the lives of others without regard for their privacy. The hypertrophied inner parent energy plays a dominant role in tyrannical and persecutory societal, religious and political systems.

Inner Dialogue is a technique to get in touch with our inner selves through relaxation or self-hypnosis and subsequent dialogues with one or several of our inner selves, in a state of light trance. This state of light trance can be self-induced. The inner dialogue should ideally be fixed on paper, at least in the beginning, because the voices that come up, are very soft and writing down the dialogues helps to keep focus. The technique is also called Voice Dialogue, for example by Stone & Stone, in their Voice Dialogue Manual.

However, the expression could mislead novice users as the ‘voices’ are not really voices, as they are not to be heard with our ears, but something like intuitions, or flashes of intuition, or sudden precisely formulated thoughts that apparently come ‘from nowhere.’

Krishnamurti, J. (K)

Jiddu Krishnamurti (1895–1986) was born in a small village in south India. Soon after moving to Madras with his family in 1909, Krishnamurti was adopted by Annie Besant, President of the Theosophical Society.

She was convinced that he was to become a great spiritual teacher, and Reverend Charles Webster Leadbeater became his personal tutor. Three years later she took him to England to be educated in preparation for his future role. An organization called The Order of the Star was set up to promote Krishnamurti’s anticipated role as a World Teacher and Maitreya. In 1929, however, after many years of questioning the destiny imposed upon him, Krishnamurti disbanded the organization, turning away the followers with the following announcement: ‘Truth is a pathless land, and you cannot approach it by any path whatsoever, by any religion, by any sect. Truth, being limitless, unconditioned, unapproachable by any path whatsoever, cannot be organized; nor should any organization be formed to lead or to coerce people along any particular spiritual path.’

From that time until his death in February 1986 at the age of ninety, he traveled around the world speaking as a private person, teaching and giving talks and having discussions. His aim was to set people psychologically free so that they might be in harmony with themselves, with nature and with others. K taught that humanity has created the environment in which we live and that nothing can ever put a stop to the violence and suffering that has been going on for thousands of years except a transformation in the human psyche. If only a dozen people are transformed, it would change the world. He used to call this transformation ‘psychological revolution.’

Krishnamurti maintained that there is no path to this transformation, no method for achieving it, no gurus or spiritual authorities who can help. He pointed to the need for an ever-deepening and acute awareness in which the limitations of the mind could drop away. K was a universal and cosmopolitan mind. Although born of Indian parentage, he stated repeatedly that he had no nationality and belonged to no particular culture of group. What he hoped his audience would learn, he himself was the living example for it, which is, in my view, the only way a guru can legitimize himself as a true leader. Only what is brought over as incarnated can be shared, not what is merely preached or lectured as true as it may be.

Education has always been one of Krishnamurti’s concerns. If a young person could learn to become aware his or her conditioning of race, nationality, religion, dogma, tradition, opinion etc., which inevitably leads to conflict, then they might become fully intelligent human beings for whom right action would be a natural way of life. K reasoned that a prejudiced or dogmatic mind can never be free.

During his life time Krishnamurti established several schools in different parts of the world where young people and adults could come together and explore this possibility further in actual daily living. Krishnamurti said of the schools that they were places where students and teachers can flower inwardly. Because, schools are meant for that, not just merely to turn out human beings as mechanical, technological instruments — though jobs and careers are necessary — but also to flower as human beings, without fear, without confusion, with great integrity. He was concerned to bring about a good human being, not in the respectable sense, but in the sense of being whole, and unfragmented. He wanted the schools to be real centers of understanding, of real comprehension of life.

K’s teaching has had a strong impact upon my own philosophical thinking, and in fact, when I first encountered it in 1985, as a member of a Krishnamurti study circle in Switzerland, I was in a state of shock, like hit by a lightning. Never in my life had I been electrified to that extent by a philosophical doctrine or life teaching.

I found his method practical and down-to-earth, something that every intelligent human can apply right away, on the spot, and without further learning. It’s something like pure consciousness. I actually never considered K’s teaching as philosophical, and use this expression only because he himself insisted that his teaching was not religion, and that he was not the Maitreya of the theosophists and that he was not the World Teacher and Super-Guru, but simply, a philosopher. In that study circle I met some of Krishnamurti’s lifelong friends, such as Raffaela Ida Sangiorgi, Princess of Liechtenstein, the wife of Prince Alfred of Liechtenstein. They hosted K for many years in their premises when he came to lecture in Saanen, and introduced him to leading intellectual and spiritual circles in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. I was introduced to the circle by Jean and Cathérine Demaurex who were friends with the person who received our little study group twice a month in his villa in Morges, at the Lac Léman, the German entrepreneur Friedrich Grohe. And it was there where I met the Princess who subsequently revealed to me intimate details about K., his life, and the many highly unusual feats about him See, for example, J. Krishnamurti, The Ending of Time, Dialogue with David Bohm (1985).

I have published an essay and an audio book on the subject of K’s idea of a ‘Psychological Revolution.’ In these productions, I was asking particularly the question if, as K claimed it, we can really ‘empty the content of our consciousness?’ While I see in the meantime that K’s unconventional ideas about dreaming, or rather, the absence of it (he said he would never dream) bear some truth, when one’s consciousness is not fragmented, I came to the conclusion in my essay that the expression ‘emptying the content of consciousness’ can only be meant metaphorically, not literally. But its metaphorical meaning has great significance despite the terminological difficulty.

What K meant is that we can renew or for the least update our awareness so as to come closer to a direct perception of truth.

Life Force

Traditional Science Terms: Cosmic Energy, Bioenergy, Élan Vital, Vis Vitalis, Spirit Energy, Vital Energy, Cosmic Energy, Ch’i, Ki, Mana, Prana, Wakonda, Hado

New Science Terms: The Field, Zero-Point Field, A-Field, L-Field, Akashic Field, Human Energy Field, Quantum Scale, Quantum Field, Quantum Vacuum, Unified Field

When we try to find a unified terminology for the cosmic life energy, we need to make abstraction from the mere wrapper that verbal language represents for content that is subject to observation.

Lozanov, Georgi

Georgi Lozanov (1926–2012) was a Bulgarian, psychiatrist educator and psychologist who emerged in the 1970s as a leading figure in the field of accelerated learning with his theory of Suggestopedia where various techniques, including breathing and music, were found to enhance learning. Suggestopedia that was later named and trademarked as Superlearning® is a technique that is using the natural holistic learning capacities of the human brain better than any other known learning technique.

Maharishi University

Maharishi University of Management (M.U.M.), formerly known as Maharishi International University, is located in Fairfield, Iowa, United States. It was founded by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the founder of the Transcendental Meditation movement. Its campus is located on the grounds of the now-defunct Parsons College. It is an accredited university with a consciousness-based education offering degree programs in the arts, sciences, business, and humanities. (Wikipedia)

Montessori Education

Montessori Schools are based on an educational method for primarily intellectual child-rearing, based on the educational theories of Italian educator Maria Montessori in the late 19th and early 20th century. It is applied primarily in pre-school and elementary school settings, though some Montessori high schools exist. The method is characterized by an emphasis on self-directed activity on the part of the child and clinical observation on the part of the teacher (often called a director, directress, or guide). It stresses the importance of adapting the child’s learning environment to his or her developmental level, and of the role of physical activity in absorbing academic concepts and practical skills. Maria Montessori’s main publication, in which she explains her method, is The Absorbent Mind (1995).

Mythology

Mythology can be said to be a perennial story collection. The stories are not just fairy tales, and they are not just real-life events either. They are epic tales that count, in their integrality, the story of human evolution, and especially of human psychic and spiritual evolution. In psychotherapy, it has been found that myths and mythopoetic content in general are highly conducive for soul healing and for healing the psyche from early fragmentation, that may have occurred through trauma, abuse, confusion, emotional entanglement, accidents, and karmic events.

Pleasure Function

During childhood and depending on the outside stimuli we are exposed to, certain preferred pathways are traced in our brain, which means that specific neural connections are established that serve the information flow. The number of those connections is namely an indicator for intelligence. The more of those preferred pathways exist in the brain of a person, the more lively appears that person, the more interested she will be in different things, and the quicker she will achieve integrating new knowledge into existing memory.

In 1973, Herbert James Campbell published his book The Pleasure Areas which represents a summery of more than twenty years of neurological research. Campbell succeeded in demonstrating that our entire thinking and living is primarily motivated by pleasure. Pleasure not only as tactile or sexual pleasure, but also as non-sensual, intellectual or spiritual pleasure. With these findings, the old theoretical controversy if man was primarily a biological or a spiritual being, became obsolete. For it is in the first place our striving for pleasure that induces certain interests in us, that drives us to certain actions and that lets us choose certain ways. Pleasure also was found to be a prime motivator in learning, provided the learning process does procure pleasure, not, as in traditional school systems, displeasure.

High memorization, Campbell found, is depending on how easily new information can be added-on to existing pathways of information. Logically, the more of those pathways exist, the better! Many preferred pathways make for high flexibility and the capacity to adapt easily to new circumstances.

Psychodrama

Psychodrama is a form of therapy which explores, through action, the problems of people. It is a group working method, in which each person becomes a therapeutic agent for others in the psychodrama group.

Developed by Jacob L. Moreno, psychodrama has strong elements of theater, often conducted on a stage with props. In psychodrama, participants explore internal conflicts through acting out their emotions and interpersonal interactions on stage. A given psychodrama session (typically 90 minutes to 2 hours) focuses principally on a single participant, known as the protagonist. Protagonists examine their relationships by interacting with the other actors and the leader, known as the director. This is done using specific techniques, including doubling, role reversals, mirrors, soliloquy, and sociometry.

Psychodrama attempts to create an internal restructuring of dysfunctional mindsets with other people, and it challenges the participants to discover new answers to old situations and become more spontaneous and independent. The psychodramatic method is an important source of the role-playing widely used in business and industry.

Psychodrama offers a powerful approach to teaching and learning, as well as to training interrelationship skills. The action techniques of psychodrama also offer a means of discovering and communicating information concerning events and situations in which the communicator has been involved. (Wikipedia)

Relaxation/Meditation

Relaxation and meditation are not synonymous. For many Westerners meditation is something rather inaccessible, and outlandish, which is why they would prefer relaxation. We know meditation in the West, but we do not use the word meditation for it, it’s as simple as that. What we call, for example, Inner Dialogue, the dialogue with our Inner Selves, is nothing but meditation, but it has never been called that way. This is simply a matter of cultural conditioning.

Progressive relaxation, which is the presently most widely used relaxation method in Western countries, was invented in 1926 by Dr. Edmund Jacobsen, M.D., the late Harvard Professor. The secret behind this simple yet powerful technique is what we today call biofeedback.

When I begin to relax, my mere will to relax is by far not enough to really induce the relaxed state. I need my body to help me. The body helps by giving a response, a feedback. To do this, I simply tell my body what to do. I say: When I relax my arm, I get a slightly hot sensation in the arm muscles. The body responds. When you do this, you will indeed feel a little heat in your arm. The body feedback reinforces what the minds tends to do, that is to relax. That way, a self-reinforcing cycle is put in motion that gradually leads to the relaxed state. It’s a fantastic technique because it is simple and effective. Its effectiveness comes from the fact that our body possesses its own intrinsic intelligence.

Perversion

Definition
Perversion
, in a general, and non-moralistic sense, is to put nature upside-down and to replace natural healthy organismic processes by artificial unhealthy mechanical processes. In a metaphorical sense, perversion is the image of the dethroned, ravished and reversed goddess, or the reversed lunar bull as her traditional consort. The quintessential example of a perversion is the repression of natural desires because they are judged unwanted under a certain ideology or contrary to well-defined norms of conduct.

What then happens is namely that the vital bioenergetic continuum and equilibrium that is part of all natural desires is disturbed or disrupted and the result is a reversal of energy polarity that brings about a retrogradation of the original impulse. This retrogradation is the actual perversion of the impulse. The result is violent sadism.

What Emerson Said
The following quote from Emerson’s essay Compensation says very clearly what I want to convey:

The history of persecution is a history of endeavors to cheat nature, to make water run up hill, to twist a rope of sand. It makes no difference whether the actors be many or one, a tyrant or a mob. A mob is a society of bodies voluntarily bereaving themselves of reason and traversing its work. The mob is man voluntarily descending to the nature of the beast. Its fit hour of activity is night. Its actions are insane like its whole constitution. It persecutes a principle; it would whip a right; it would tar and feather justice, by inflicting fire and outrage upon the houses and persons of those who have these.

— The Essays of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Compensation (1987), The Essays of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987, 69

Perversion appears to be produced by fear. And it is equally true that psychological fear is perversion, an upside-down of the élan vital, a retrogradation of the love energies, an obstruction of the life force. The most important to know about perverse desires is that they come about through the repression of original desires; thus, the perverse desire kind of replaces the original desire and compensates for its lack.

In other words, the perverse desire has two functions, a replacement function and a compensation function. Perversion, we could attempt to define, then, is a strongly distorted form of sexual love, a sexual desire that is mutilated in a way to result in its very contrary. Instead of love and life, what comes out in perversion is hate and death. In the Freudian terminology, we would say that perversity is not a form of libido but a variant of the death instinct.

Perversion is Fear
Perversion is paranoid, it is avaricious and takes only, unable to give, utterly narcissistic. Love is sharing, and shared pleasure, while perversity is egotistic and lonely enjoyment at the cost of another, even at the cost of his or her life. Thus, while in love there is always natural care, perversity typically is little or not caring about another.

Religious Perversion
Calvinism
was an atrocious extremist perversion of the Christian dogma in its Protestant vintage. It was brought up by the French Swiss Jean Calvin (1509–1564), a lawyer and fanatic Protestant Reformer. Calvinism is best known from the tortures it has inflicted upon children and even infants, to withhold them from masturbating, thus attaching their tiny hands to the bed’s wooden frame, which caused in some cases long-term paralysis and even death of the infant. The horror of these tortures is described in many studies, that were carefully reviewed by the Swiss psychoanalyst Alice Miller, in her books Thou Shalt Not Be Aware (1998) and For Your Own Good (1983) as well as the American psychoanalyst Lloyd DeMause, in his book History of Childhood (1974). Both authors have the merit to have unveiled one of the best kept secrets of our history of education.

Puritanism began in the 16th century during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I as a movement for religious reform. The early Puritans felt that the Elizabethan ecclesiastical establishment was too political, too compromising, and too Catholic in its liturgy, vestments, and episcopal hierarchy. Calvinist in theology, they stressed predestination and demanded scriptural warrant for all details of public worship. They believed that the Scriptures did not sanction the setting up of bishops and churches by the state. The aim of the early Puritans such as Thomas Cartwright was to purify the Church (hence their name), not to separate from it. After the 17th century, the Puritans as a political entity largely disappeared, but Puritan attitudes and ethics continued to exert an influence on modern society, especially in Anglo-Saxon countries. They made a virtue of qualities that made for economic success such as self-reliance, frugality, industry, and energy, and through them influenced modern social and economic life.

While this movement may have had good reasons for its existence at that point in time, and as such we cannot qualify it as a ‘perversion’, what is unnatural is to use puritanical ethics in the education of children today, at a time where such behavior simply is anachronistic. In such a case we are facing a situation where a certain morality has become a convenient shielding of unnatural attitudes and personal hangups. Often, parents who are persecutory toward their children by advocating and enforcing puritanical attitudes and practices are in fact inadequate as parents because they are insecure as caretakers, and often emotionally stuck or suffering from an abuse problem that was not therapeutically worked through.

In these cases, and there are many in our still subtly moralistic modern society, it is difficult to identify inadequate parenting by social institutions who could help and give support, as the problems are veiled behind a phraseology or ‘good morality’ and a vocabulary that puts the parent up as being ‘ideal’ and the child down as ‘in need of a strong guidance’ and paternalistic control and supervision. What is perverse in this attitude is the fact that nature is not believed to be regulatory by itself, thereby replacing nature’s wisdom by human willfulness.

The Inquisition was organized murder perpetrated by the Christian Church in a to this day unmatched holocaust in which for the most part young women and children were persecuted as heretics, tortured in unspeakable ways and put to death by quartering, hanging or burning. This plague of religious perversion and violence lasted for several centuries in Medieval Europe and was never really labeled by any modern human rights movement as what it truly was, the first organized global genocide in human history.

Television

Paralleling television’s growing primacy in family life and society, an increasingly vocal chorus of legislators, scientists and parents are raising objections to the uncritical acceptance of the medium. For example, the Swedish government imposed a total ban on advertising to children under twelve in 1991. Fifty years of research on the impact of television on children’s emotional and social development (Norma Pecora, John P. Murray, & Ellen A. Wartella, Children and Television: 50 Years of Research, published by Erlbaum Press, June, 2006) demonstrate that there are clear and lasting effects of viewing violence.

In a 2006 study, published in the journal Media Psychology, volume 8, number 1, pages 25–37, the research team demonstrated that the brain activation patterns of children viewing violence show that children are aroused by the violence, demonstrate fear in response to the depicted violence, and store the observed images in an area of the brain reserved for long-term memory of traumatic events.

A longitudinal study in New Zealand involving 1000 people from childhood to 26 years of age demonstrated that television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with poor educational achievement by 26 years of age. In other words, the more a child watches television, the less likely he or she is to finish school and enroll in a university. In Iceland, television broadcasting hours were restricted until 1984, with no television programs being broadcast on Thursday, or during the whole of July.

Waldorf Education

Waldorf Education, also known as Steiner Education or Steiner-Waldorf Education, is a pedagogy based upon the educational philosophy of Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. Learning is interdisciplinary, integrates practical, artistic, and intellectual elements, and is coordinated with natural rhythms of everyday life.

The Waldorf approach emphasizes the role of the imagination in learning, developing thinking that includes a creative as well as an analytic component.

Studies of the education describe its overarching goal as providing young people the basis on which to develop into free, moral and integrated individuals, and to help every child fulfill his or her unique destiny (the existence of which anthroposophy posits). Schools and teachers are given considerable freedom to define curricula within collegial structures. (Wikipedia)

See, for example, Rudolf Steiner, Theosophy : An Introduction to the Spiritual Processes in Human Life and in the Cosmos, New York: Anthroposophic Press, 1994; Francis Edmunds, An Introduction to Anthroposophy: Rudolf Steiner’s Worldview, London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 2005 (revised and updated edition); Jack Petrash, Understanding Waldorf Education: Teaching from the Inside Out, London: Floris Books, 2003.

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